Understanding sleep problems in children with epilepsy: Associations with quality of life, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and maternal emotional symptoms

Sleep problems are one of the most common comorbidities in epilepsy [1]. The available research indicates that children with epilepsy have a higher frequency of sleep problems than both their healthy siblings and healthy control subjects [2,3]. Multiple types of sleep problems, mainly based on parent-rated tools, have been reported including difficulty on initiating and maintaining sleep, sleep-disordered breathing, parasomnias and excessive daytime sleepiness [4].

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Diagnostic delay in psychogenic seizures and the association with anti-seizure medication trials

The average delay from first seizure to diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is over 7 years. The reason for this delay is not well understood. We hypothesized that a perceived decrease in seizure frequency after starting an anti-seizure medication (ASM) may contribute to longer delays, but the frequency of such a response has not been well established.

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Lactate as a Diagnostic Marker in Transient Loss of Consciousness

Revealing the etiology of transient impairments of consciousness is an interdisciplinary task, which often remains unsuccessful despite a wide range of available diagnostic tests. From a neurological perspective it is important to discriminate epileptic and non-epileptic events. Syncopes and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in particular can be difficult to distinguish from epileptic seizures.

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Status epilepticus secondary to glioma

Brain tumor related epilepsy is an important aspect of the burden of disease for patients with glioma and often pose a therapeutic challenge. The risk of epileptic seizures is 70-90% for patients with low grade glioma (LGG) and 30-60% for patients with high grade glioma (HGG) [1–5]. In this study, we explored status epilepticus (SE) in a prospective patient database with glioma and epilepsy. SE is a life-threatening medical emergency in which seizure activity continues for a prolonged period of ...

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Invasive Seizure Monitoring in the Critically-Ill Brain Injury Patient: Current Practices and a Review of the Literature

Seizures commonly occur in a variety of serious neurological illnesses, and lead to additional morbidity and worsened outcomes. Recently, it has become clear that not all seizures in the acute brain injury setting are evident on scalp EEG. To address this, we have developed a protocol for depth electrode placement in the neuro-intensive care unit for patients in whom the clinical suspicion of occult seizures is high. In the current manuscript, we review the literature on depth EEG monitoring for ...

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Decision analysis of intracranial monitoring in non-lesional epilepsy

Up to one third of patients with epilepsy develop medication-refractory epilepsy [1]. Surgery is often an effective treatment for these patients. Several studies, including a randomized controlled trial and a decision analysis [2,3], demonstrate the effectiveness of surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy. These patients have up to an 80% chance of post-operative seizure freedom. Similarly high rates of success are seen in lesional extratemporal epilepsy [4].

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Automated seizure detection systems and their effectiveness for each type of seizure

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders with an incidence of approximately 40-70/100,000 per year in adults [1] and 41-187/100,000 per year in children [2], being particularly frequent in rural and underdeveloped areas [1,3–5]. Almost 47% of patients will become seizure-free with the first anti-seizure medication trial and an additional 14% of patients with a second or third medicine [6]. Despite optimal medication management, about 20-30% of patients with epilepsy will continue to have more than one seizure ...

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Racial differences in Emergency Department visits for seizures

Seizures occur in 9–10% of the population [1]. Seizures are a common reason for Emergency Department (ED) visits, accounting for approximately 1–2% of ED visits in the U.S [2]. There is a growing body of literature highlighting disparities in seizure care related to race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Patients with low SES and seizures are not only more likely to utilize the ED for their seizure care when compared to those with high SES, but are also more likely ...

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Neuroimaging features in subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome)

The diagnosis of acute neurological disorders occurring in patients with a history of alcohol abuse may be challenging. An unusual picture of subacute encephalopathy with seizures (SESA syndrome) in chronic alcoholics was initially characterized by Niedermeyer et al. [1] and Freund and Niedermeyer [2] in 1981. SESA syndrome represents a distinct subtype of localization-related non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in which recurrent complex partial seizures occur in alcoholic adult individuals, with transient neurologic deficits, interictal periodic lateralized discharges (PLDs) on the ...

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The value of 24-hour video-EEG in evaluating recurrence risk following a first unprovoked seizure: A prospective study

A seizure is a clinical manifestation characterized by abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain that occurs instantaneously [1]. Seizures are categorized into provoked seizure and unprovoked seizure, according to whether there are one ore more predisposing factors [2]. A provoked seizure is defined as an acute occurrence caused by stroke, traumatic brain injury, intracranial surgery, central nervous system (CNS) infections or other acute brain disease. And an unprovoked seizure is of unknown cause.

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