Indoleamine 2,3‐dioxygenase 1 deletion promotes Theiler’s virus–induced seizures in C57BL/6J mice

Summary

Objective

Viral encephalitis increases the risk for developing seizures and epilepsy. Indoleamine 2,3‐dioxygenase 1 (Ido1) is induced by inflammatory cytokines and functions to metabolize tryptophan to kynurenine. Kynurenine can be further metabolized to produce kynurenic acid and the N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QuinA). In the present study, we sought to determine the role of Ido1 in promoting seizures in an animal model of viral encephalitis.

Methods

C57BL/6J and Ido1 knockout mice (Ido1‐KO) were infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). Quantitative real‐time ...

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The effect of medial pulvinar stimulation on temporal lobe seizures

Summary

We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation of the medial pulvinar (PuM) in terms of its effect on temporal lobe seizures. Eight patients with drug‐resistant temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing stereoelectroencephalographic exploration were included. All had at least one electrode exploring the PuM. High‐frequency (50 Hz) stimulations of the PuM were well tolerated in the majority of them. During diagnostic stimulation to confirm the epileptogenic zone, 19 seizures were triggered by stimulating the hippocampus. During some of these seizures, ipsilateral pulvinar ...

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Ventilatory response to CO2 in patients with epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Severe periictal respiratory depression is thought to be linked to risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) but its determinants are largely unknown. Interindividual differences in the interictal ventilatory response to CO2 (hypercapnic ventilatory response [HCVR] or central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity) may identify patients who are at increased risk for severe periictal hypoventilation. HCVR has not been studied previously in patients with epilepsy; therefore we evaluated a method to measure it at bedside in an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) ...

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Curcumin reduces development of seizurelike events in the hippocampal‐entorhinal cortex slice culture model for epileptogenesis

Summary

Objective

Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway could be antiepileptogenic in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), possibly via anti‐inflammatory actions. We studied effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the anti‐inflammatory compound curcumin—also reported to inhibit the mTOR pathway—on epileptogenesis and inflammation in an in vitro organotypic hippocampal‐entorhinal cortex slice culture model.

Methods

Brain slices containing hippocampus and entorhinal cortex were obtained from 6‐day‐old rat pups and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. Rapamycin or curcumin was added to the culture ...

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Risk analysis of hemorrhage in stereo‐electroencephalography procedures

Summary

Objective

To examine the true incidence of hemorrhage related to stereo‐electroencephalography (SEEG) procedures. To analyze risk factors associated with the presence of different types of hemorrhage in SEEG procedures.

Methods

This was a retrospective, single‐center observational study examining every SEEG implantation performed at our center from 2009 to 2017. This consisted of 549 consecutive SEEG implantations using a variety of stereotactic and imaging techniques. A hemorrhage grading system was applied by a blinded neuroradiologist to every postimplant and postexplant computed tomography (CT) scan. ...

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Cannabidiol in patients with Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome: Interim analysis of an open‐label extension study

Summary

Objective

Patients with Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome (LGS) who completed 1 of 2 randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trials of add‐on cannabidiol (CBD) (GWPCARE3, NCT02224560 or GWPCARE4, NCT02224690) were invited to enroll in an open‐label extension (OLE) study evaluating the long‐term safety and efficacy of CBD (GWPCARE5, NCT02224573). Herein we present an interim analysis of the safety, efficacy, and patient‐reported outcomes from this trial.

Methods

Patients received a pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified CBD oral solution (Epidiolex; 100 mg/mL), titrated from 2.5 to 20 mg/kg/d over a 2‐week titration ...

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Functional MRI and direct cortical stimulation: Prediction of postoperative language decline

Summary

Objective

To assess the ability of functional MRI (fMRI) to predict postoperative language decline compared to direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in epilepsy surgery patients.

Methods

In this prospective case series, 17 patients with drug‐resistant epilepsy had intracranial monitoring and resection from 2012 to 2016 with 1‐year follow‐up. All patients completed preoperative language fMRI, mapping with DCS of subdural electrodes, pre‐ and postoperative neuropsychological testing for language function, and resection. Changes in language function before and after surgery were assessed. fMRI activation and DCS ...

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fMRI prediction of naming change after adult temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: Activation matters

Summary

Objective

We aimed to predict language deficits after epilepsy surgery. In addition to evaluating surgical factors examined previously, we determined the impact of the extent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation that was resected on naming ability.

Method

Thirty‐five adults (mean age 37.5 ± 10.9 years, 13 male) with temporal lobe epilepsy completed a preoperative fMRI auditory description decision task, which reliably activates frontal and temporal language networks. Patients underwent temporal lobe resections (20 left resection). The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to determine ...

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A mouse model of seizures in anti–N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor encephalitis

Summary

Objective

Seizures develop in 80% of patients with anti–N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, and these represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Anti‐NMDAR antibodies have been linked to memory loss in encephalitis; however, their role in seizures has not been established. We determined whether anti‐NMDAR antibodies from autoimmune encephalitis patients are pathogenic for seizures.

Methods

We performed continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or purified immunoglobulin (IgG) from the CSF of patients with anti‐NMDAR encephalitis or polyclonal rabbit anti‐NMDAR IgG, in male ...

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Development of information sharing in language neocortex in childhood‐onset drug‐resistant epilepsy

Summary

Objective

We studied age‐related dynamics of information sharing among cortical language regions with electrocorticographic high‐gamma modulation during picture‐naming and story‐listening tasks.

Methods

Seventeen epilepsy patients aged 4‐19 years, undergoing extraoperative monitoring with left‐hemispheric subdural electrodes, were included. Mutual information (MI), a nondirectional measure of shared information, between 16 pairs of cortical regions of interest, was computed from trial‐averaged 70–150 Hz power modulations during language tasks. Impact of age on pairwise MI between language regions and their determinants were ascertained with regression analysis.

Results

During picture naming, ...

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