Zebrafish model of posttraumatic epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is defined as recurrent and unprovoked seizures occurring >1 week after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Animal studies of PTE are lengthy and expensive. In this study, we developed a cost‐effective PTE animal model using zebrafish to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and low‐throughput animal studies.

Methods

We used two different sets of parameters (G1 and G2) to induce closed‐head TBI in adult zebrafish using pulsed high‐intensity focused ultrasound. Injured fish and naive controls were evaluated for behavioral deficits ...

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Interictal intracranial electroencephalography for predicting surgical success: The importance of space and time

Abstract

Objective

Predicting postoperative seizure freedom using functional correlation networks derived from interictal intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) has shown some success. However, there are important challenges to consider: (1) electrodes physically closer to each other naturally tend to be more correlated, causing a spatial bias; (2) implantation location and number of electrodes differ between patients, making cross‐subject comparisons difficult; and (3) functional correlation networks can vary over time but are currently assumed to be static.

Methods

In this study, we address these three challenges using ...

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Orbitofrontal involvement in a neuroCOVID‐19 patient

Abstract

Neurological manifestations of COVID‐19 such as encephalitis and seizures have been increasingly reported, but our understanding of COVID‐related brain injury is still limited. Herein we describe prefrontal involvement in a COVID‐19 patient who presented prior anosmia, raising the question of a potential trans‐olfactory‐bulb brain invasion.

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Motor hyperactivation during cognitive tasks: An endophenotype of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most common genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome. Myoclonus may relate to motor system hyperexcitability and can be provoked by cognitive activities. To aid genetic mapping in complex neuropsychiatric disorders, recent research has utilized imaging intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes). Here, we aimed to (a) characterize activation profiles of the motor system during different cognitive tasks in patients with JME and their unaffected siblings, and (b) validate those as endophenotypes of JME.

Methods

This prospective cross‐sectional investigation included 32 patients ...

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Who seizes longest? Impact of clinical and demographic factors

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the impact of clinical and demographic parameters on the duration of focal onset seizures with and without secondary generalization using precise duration measurements from intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings.

Methods

Patients with unifocal epilepsy syndromes and iEEG recording were retrospectively identified from the database of the local epilepsy center (2006‐2016). Seizure duration was defined as time difference of iEEG seizure pattern onset and cessation. The seizure semiology was classified based on video recordings. Clinical and demographic data were extracted from patient ...

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Relationship between saliva and plasma rufinamide concentrations in patients with epilepsy

Abstract

The assay of saliva samples provides a valuable alternative to the use of blood samples for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), at least for certain categories of patients. To determine the feasibility of using saliva sampling for the TDM of rufinamide, we compared rufinamide concentrations in paired samples of saliva and plasma collected from 26 patients with epilepsy at steady state. Within‐patient relationships between plasma rufinamide concentrations and dose, and the influence of comedication were also investigated. Assay results in the ...

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2‐Deoxyglucose terminates pilocarpine‐induced status epilepticus in neonatal rats

Abstract

Objective

Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is a life‐threatening medical emergency. Unfortunately, up to 50% of neonates with SE are resistant to current antiseizure drugs, highlighting the need for better treatments. This study aims to explore a novel metabolic approach as a potential alternative treatment to control neonatal SE, using the glycolytic inhibitor 2‐deoxyglucose (2‐DG).

Methods

SE was induced by pilocarpine (300 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in neonatal Sprague Dawley rats (postnatal day 10 [P10]‐P17) and was monitored by video‐electroencephalography (V‐EEG). After 30 minutes of SE, 2‐DG ...

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Deciphering the surgical treatment gap for drug‐resistant epilepsy (DRE): A literature review

Abstract

Patients with drug‐resistant epilepsy (DRE) rarely achieve seizure freedom with medical therapy alone. Despite being safe and effective for select patients with DRE, epilepsy surgery remains heavily underutilized. Multiple studies have indicated that the overall rates of surgery in patients with DRE have stagnated in recent years and may be decreasing, even when hospitalizations for epilepsy‐related problems are on the rise. Ultimately, many patients with DRE who might otherwise benefit from surgery continue to have intractable seizures, lacking access to ...

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Behavioral phenotypes of childhood idiopathic epilepsies

Abstract

Objective

To characterize the presence and nature of discrete behavioral phenotypes and their correlates in a cohort of youth with new and recent onset focal and generalized epilepsies.

Methods

The parents of 290 youth (age = 8‐18 years) with epilepsy (n = 183) and typically developing participants (n = 107) completed the Child Behavior Checklist for children aged 6‐18 from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The eight behavior problem scales were subjected to hierarchical clustering analytics to identify behavioral subgroups. To characterize the external validity ...

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Changes in cognition after introduction or withdrawal of zonisamide versus topiramate in epilepsy patients: A retrospective study using Bayes statistics

Abstract

Objective

We aim to evaluate the impact of zonisamide (ZNS) compared to topiramate (TPM) on cognition in patients with epilepsy. Although the risk of cognitive side effects has been clearly demonstrated for TPM, comparable side effects in ZNS have been suggested but evidence from studies is inconclusive.

Methods

In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed patients’ records from before and after introduction or withdrawal of ZNS vs TPM. Data were gathered during routine clinical care protocols. Standardized monitoring of executive functions (EpiTrack), verbal ...

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