A prospective cohort study to assess the frequency and risk factors for calcification in single lesion parenchymal neurocysticercosis

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent helminthic infection of the nervous system. It occurs when humans become intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium after ingesting its eggs. The disease is transmitted from tapeworm carriers to healthy individuals through unhygienic food handling or by direct contact with human faeces [1]. NCC is the most common acquired cause of epilepsy in developing countries [2–4]. Classically, neurocysticercosis evolves through four stages: vesicular, colloidal, granular nodular and calcified ...

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Catastrophising and repetitive negative thinking tendencies in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures or epilepsy

Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES) are characterised by episodic disturbances of normal brain functions superficially resembling epileptic seizures. However, rather than being related to epileptic activity in the brain, PNES are considered to result from activation of an established ‘seizure scaffold’ and as a dissociative response to aversive internal or external stimuli [1]. The aetiology of PNES is heterogeneous and a combination of aetiological factors is likely to be relevant in most cases [2,3].

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Redefining the role of Magnetoencephalography in refractory epilepsy

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) possesses a number of features, including excellent spatiotemporal resolution, that lend itself to the functional imaging of epileptic activity. However its current use is restricted to specific scenarios, namely in the diagnosis refractory focal epilepsies where electroencephalography (EEG) has been inconclusive. This review highlights the recent progress of MEG within epilepsy, including advances in the technique itself such as simultaneous EEG/MEG and intracranial EEG/MEG recording and room temperature MEG recording using optically pumped magnetometers, as well as improved ...

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Teleneuropsychology in the time of COVID-19: the experience of the Australian Epilepsy Project

The emergence of COVID-19 has resulted in significant changes in the day-to-day functioning of society the world over. Social distancing policies have had profound effects on people’s day-to-day movements and interpersonal interactions [1] with enormous implications for workplaces, organisations, institutions and social activities. In the health sector this has meant that, wherever possible, clinical consultations have moved from face-to-face to a virtual environment (e.g. telephone, videoconferencing).

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Child and parent experiences of childhood epilepsy surgery and adjustment to life following surgery: A qualitative study

Individuals with epilepsy report high levels of perceived stigma, which is associated with poorer psychosocial functioning, increased risk of mental health problems and reduced participation in social activities [2]. Surgical treatment may be considered due to the detrimental impact of repeated seizure activity on neurological development. Earlier surgery in children may provide a longer period of neurological plasticity and improved cognitive outcomes [3].

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Cognitive Disorders in Epilepsy I: Clinical Experience, Real-World Evidence and Recommendations

A revised definition of epilepsy suggests that “epilepsy is a disease of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive, psychologic, and social consequences of this condition.” Based on this definition, the aim of treatment of patients with epilepsy (PWE) should not be limited to the achievement of seizure remission but must incorporate the treatment of cognitive and psychological comorbidities [1].

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Statin use and the risk of post-stroke seizures: A meta-analysis

As a prevalent neurologic disorder, stroke has been well established as one of the most leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide [1]. Stroke is a main cause of acute symptomatic seizures and epilepsy in patients older than 65 years old [2]. Due to a large prevalence of stroke in the ageing population, post-stroke seizures (PSS) are affecting a significant proportion of elderly patients[3]. Increasing evidence has suggested that PSS are associated with increased mortality and disability in stroke patients[4].

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Rasmussen’s encephalitis and central precocious puberty. Neuroendocrinological characterization of three cases

Rasmussen’s encephalitis (RE) is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by inflammation of the cerebral cortex, mainly unilateral, that leads to drug-resistant epilepsy and progressive neurological impairment. Central Precocious Puberty (CPP) is uncommon, albeit increased in frequency in patients with neurological conditions and the physiopathological bases of these associations remains unclear in most cases. Epilepsy has been proposed to play a role, as well as the accumulation of substances produced as a result of metabolism or tissue degeneration in some neurodegenerative ...

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Learnings from 30 years of reported Efficacy and Safety of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Epilepsy Treatment: A critical review

Since its first reported use in humans in 1988 and more than 100,000 subsequent implantations, VNS has generated growing interest in the management of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) [1]. These represent around 30% of all epilepsy cases [2]. The average prevalence of epilepsy in the world is estimated at around 7.60 cases/1,000 inhabitants, with an average annual incidence of 67.77 cases/100,000 inhabitants [3]. The functional prognosis and survival associated with this condition are influenced by major trauma and psychiatric and cognitive ...

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