Efficacy of phenobarbital and sodium valproate in treating convulsive epilepsy in northeast China

Epilepsy is a common disease of the nervous system. Epidemiological data from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) showed that the prevalence of epilepsy is 5.8‰ in developed countries and 15.4‰ in developing countries. The prevalence of active epilepsy is 4.9‰in developed countries and 12.7‰ in developing countries [1]. More than 85% of epilepsy cases occur in 49% of the world’s population that resides in low- and middle-income countries [1,2]. A meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of epilepsy in China ...

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Two Chinese siblings with two novel KCTD7 mutations have dystonia or seizures and epileptic discharge on electroencephalograms

Many potassium channel gene mutations are reportedly associated with genetic forms of epilepsy, such as progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME). In 2007, a homozygous mutation of the gene encoding potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing protein 7 (KCTD7) was first reported in three siblings from a consanguineous family with PME with autosomal recessive inheritance1. PME associated with KCTD7 mutations has been reported in 42 patients from 33 families to date2,3. Here, we describe one Chinese girl presenting with paroxysmal non-epileptic myoclonus that was ...

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Status epilepticus in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy

Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), is a rare disorder with an estimated prevalence of 2:100.000, a reported woman to men ratio of 4:1[1], and a relatively greater frequency in the adult population [2].

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The Prevalence and Clinical Features of Epileptic Seizures in a Memory Clinic Population

Patients with dementia are at risk of developing epileptic seizures [1–5]. This was reported by Alzheimer himself in his description of Johann F in 1911 [6]. However, the extent to which this risk is increased has been disputed and remains unclear [7]. Estimates of the prevalence of epilepsy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease range from 0.5% [8] to 64% [9]. Moreover, whilst conventional wisdom has considered epilepsy to be a feature of advanced disease in these patients [10], more recent ...

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An overview of anti-epileptic therapy management of patients with malignant tumors of the brain undergoing radiation therapy

Seizures are the most common symptomatology among patients with malignancies of the brain, with reported rates of 15-95%. Seizures are often the initial manifestation of an intracranial malignancy, though 20-45% of patients will develop seizures later in the course of their disease [1–13]. The underlying pathophysiology of epilepsy among brain tumor patients is multifactorial and incompletely understood, but likely included physical and biochemical changes in the surrounding neural tissue. Proposed mechanisms include edema, increased intracranial pressure, changes in synaptic vesicles, ...

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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY AT A TERTIARY REFERRAL CENTRE IN SOUTH AFRICA

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder globally affecting 70 million people, up to 90% of whom live in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (L&LMICs) and over half of these are children [1,2]. Epilepsy presenting in childhood is heterogeneous, with diverse underlying aetiologies, clinical presentations, severity and prognosis. Neurobehavioural and psychiatric comorbidities occur in up to 80% of children and are frequently under-recognized [3].

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Clinical features of campylobacter-associated benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis compared with rotavirus convulsions

Benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BCWG) is recognized as a distinct clinical entity. Since it was first described in 1982 by Morooka [1], it has been mainly reported in East Asian countries such as Japan, China, and South Korea and occasionally reported in Western countries [2–6]. BCWG has been defined as a syndrome characterized by afebrile convulsions occurring in otherwise healthy children with mild gastroenteritis who do not have meningitis, encephalitis, encephalopathy, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances or hypoglycemia and who have ...

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Novel mutations in SCN9A occurring with fever-associated seizures or epilepsy

Fever-associated seizures or epilepsy (FASE), which is common in infants and children, is primarily characterised by the occurrence of an epileptic seizure accompanied with fever. FASE includes febrile seizures (FS), febrile seizures plus (FS+), genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS), which is a severe form of epilepsy. Genetic factors, such as SCN1A and GABRG2 mutations, have been demonstrated to play a key role in the pathogenesis of FASE[1,2,3]. However, the exact causative genetic changes are ...

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Hypsarrhythmia is associated with widespread, asymmetric cerebral hypermetabolism

Infantile spasms is the most common epilepsy syndrome with onset in the first year of life, characterized by clusters of epileptic spasms, and often accompanied by a chaotic EEG pattern known as hypsarrhythmia 1. Prompt and effective treatment is essential in preventing the severe neurodevelopmental sequela that frequently accompany infantile spasms 2. There is broad consensus that successful response to any therapy in the treatment of infantile spasms requires resolution of both spasms and hypsarrhythmia 3.

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