WONOEP appraisal: Molecular and cellular biomarkers for epilepsy


Peripheral biomarkers have myriad potential uses for treatment, prediction, prognostication, and pharmacovigilance in epilepsy. To date, no single peripheral biomarker has demonstrated proven effectiveness, although multiple candidates are in development. In this review, we discuss the major areas of focus including inflammation, blood–brain barrier dysfunction, redox alterations, metabolism, hormones and growth factors.