Metabolic Bone Disease in Patients with Epilepsy and the Use of Antiepileptic Drugs

Osteoporosis is the most common bone disorder and is estimated to affect more than 200 million people worldwide (1). Osteoporosis is a chronic multifactorial disease characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) due to an imbalance in the bone remodeling process which leads to porous bones, impaired structural integrity, decreased strength, and an increased risk of fractures (2). According to WHO, the definition of osteoporosis is a BMD ≤ -2.5 standard deviations (SD) below the average for a young healthy Caucasian woman also known as a T-score ≤ -2.5 SD (3).