The Possible Role of Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Dysfunction in Epileptic Spasms

Epileptic spasms (ESs) have been identified as a distinct form of seizure by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) [1]. These spasms have characteristic brief axial and rhizomelic contractions, and the ictal electroencephalography (EEG) is characterized by a slow, transient wave after undergoing a period of attenuation [2]. These characteristics are most frequently related with West syndrome (WS) [3]. WS is a specific electroclinical epilepsy syndrome with onset in infancy with a characteristic electrographic pattern, hypsarrhythmia, and developmental delays.