We aimed to determine the rates and predictors of resection and seizure freedom after bilateral stereo‐electroencephalography (SEEG) implantation.
We reviewed 184 patients who underwent bilateral SEEG implantation (2009‐2015). Noninvasive and invasive evaluation findings were collected. Outcomes of interest included subsequent resection and seizure freedom. Statistical analyses employed multivariable logistic regression and proportional hazard modeling. Preoperative and postoperative seizure frequency, severity, and quality of life scales were also compared.
Following bilateral SEEG implantation, 106 of 184 patients (58%) underwent resection. Single seizure type (P = 0.007), a family history of epilepsy (P = 0.003), 10 or more seizures per month (P = 0.004), lower number of electrodes (P = 0.02), or sentinel electrode placement (P = 0.04) was predictive of undergoing a resection, as were lack of nonlocalized (P < 0.0001) or bilateral (P < 0.0001) ictal‐onset zones on SEEG. Twenty‐six of 81 patients (32% with follow‐up greater than 1 year) remained seizure‐free. Predictors of seizure freedom were single seizure type (P = 0.01), short epilepsy duration (P = 0.008), use of 2 or fewer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) at the time of surgery (P = 0.0006), primary localization hypothesis involving the frontal lobe (P = 0.002), sentinel electrode placement only (P = 0.02), and lack of overlap between ictal‐onset zone and eloquent cortex (P = 0.04), along with epilepsy substrate histopathology (P = 0.007). Complete resection of a suspected focal cortical dysplasia showed a trend to increased likelihood of seizure freedom (P = 0.09). The 44 of 55 patients (80%) who underwent resection and experienced seizure recurrence had >50% seizure reduction, as opposed to 26 of 45 patients (58%) who continued medical therapy alone (P = 0.003). Seventy‐two percent of patients had a clinically meaningful quality of life improvement (>10% decrease in the Quality of Life in Epilepsy [QOLIE‐10] score) at 1 year.
A strong preimplantation hypothesis of a suspected unifocal epilepsy increases the odds of resection and seizure freedom. We discuss a tailored approach, taking into account localization hypothesis and suspected epilepsy etiology in guiding implantation and subsequent surgical strategy.