Deep facial analysis: A new phase I epilepsy evaluation using computer vision

Publication date: May 2018Source:Epilepsy & Behavior, Volume 82
Author(s): David Ahmedt-Aristizabal, Clinton Fookes, Kien Nguyen, Simon Denman, Sridha Sridharan, Sasha Dionisio
Semiology observation and characterization play a major role in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. However, the interpretation of patient movements has subjective and intrinsic challenges. In this paper, we develop approaches to attempt to automatically extract and classify semiological patterns from facial expressions. We address limitations of existing computer-based analytical approaches of epilepsy monitoring, where facial movements have largely been ignored. This is an area that has seen limited advances in the literature. Inspired by recent advances in deep learning, we propose two deep learning models, landmark-based and region-based, to quantitatively identify changes in facial semiology in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) from spontaneous expressions during phase I monitoring. A dataset has been collected from the Mater Advanced Epilepsy Unit (Brisbane, Australia) and is used to evaluate our proposed approach. Our experiments show that a landmark-based approach achieves promising results in analyzing facial semiology, where movements can be effectively marked and tracked when there is a frontal face on visualization. However, the region-based counterpart with spatiotemporal features achieves more accurate results when confronted with extreme head positions. A multifold cross-validation of the region-based approach exhibited an average test accuracy of 95.19% and an average AUC of 0.98 of the ROC curve. Conversely, a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation scheme for the same approach reveals a reduction in accuracy for the model as it is affected by data limitations and achieves an average test accuracy of 50.85%. Overall, the proposed deep learning models have shown promise in quantifying ictal facial movements in patients with MTLE. In turn, this may serve to enhance the automated presurgical epilepsy evaluation by allowing for standardization, mitigating bias, and assessing key features. The computer-aided diagnosis may help to support clinical decision-making and prevent erroneous localization and surgery.