Regulation of kindling epileptogenesis by hippocampal Toll-like receptors 2


This study examined whether Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) contribute to rapid kindling epileptogenesis. A TLR2 agonist, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), LTA antibody (LTA-A), or normal saline (control) was administered daily over 3 consecutive days, unilaterally into ventral hippocampus of adult male Wistar rats. Thirty minutes after the last injection, the animals were subjected to a rapid kindling procedure. The ictogenesis was gauged by comparing afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and afterdischarge duration (ADD) before the treatments, after the treatments prior to kindling, and 24 h after kindling. Kindling progression and retention were analyzed using video recording. The results showed that before kindling, LTA produced an ADT reduction. Neither LTA nor LTA-A affected baseline ADD. On kindling progression, LTA accelerated occurrence of generalized seizures, whereas LTA-A delayed this effect. Treatment with LTA-A reduced the number of secondary generalized complex partial seizures. Twenty-four hours after kindling, the rats of both the saline and LTA groups showed increased hippocampal excitability as compared with prekindling parameters. Administration of LTA-A prevented kindling-induced increase of hippocampal excitability. Immunostaining revealed that LTA-A attenuated the inflammatory response produced by seizures. These findings suggest that the activation of TLR2 in the hippocampus may facilitate limbic epileptogenesis.