Long-term tolerability, safety and efficacy of adjunctive perampanel in the open-label, dose-ascending Study 231 and extension Study 233 in Japanese patients with epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that affects approximately 50 million people worldwide [1]. It is defined as a disorder of the brain and characterised by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures [2,3]. Multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been developed to try to control seizures in patients with epilepsy; however, 20–30% of patients are still refractory to currently available drug treatments, thus, the development of novel AEDs is required [4–6].

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Outcome and predictive factors in post-stroke seizures: A retrospective case-control study

Every year, more than 795,000 people in the United States have a stroke [1]. Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death for Americans [1]. Stroke is a commonly identified cause of epilepsy in patients older than 35, and the most common cause of seizures in the elderly [2,3]. From stroke registry data, 5-20% of all patients who have suffered stroke will develop seizures[4]. Frequency is variable due to different study methodologies[4]. In a multicenter, prospective study, seizures occurred in ...

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DRAVET SYNDROME IN SOUTH AFRICAN INFANTS: TOOLS FOR AN EARLY DIAGNOSIS

Dravet syndrome (DS) (OMIM 607208), previously described as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) is a severe genetic epilepsy with associated encephalopathy.[1] Early clinical presentation of DS is characterised by the onset of prolonged, febrile and afebrile generalized clonic or hemiclonic seizures in an otherwise normally developing infant. Seizures are usually resistant to typically prescribed anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and evolve with the disease progression to include myoclonic, atypical absences and focal seizures.

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Stroke as a presenting sign of systemic occult cancer

Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder which affects about 1% of the U.S. population [1]. Most new cases of epilepsy occur in the elderly, with an annual incidence rate of 240 per 100,000 in people aged 65 and older in the United States [1]. Among patients with new-onset epilepsy, almost 50% of the causes can be explained by an underlying etiology, such as vascular diseases, tumors or metabolic disorders [2]. Around 30-40% of new epilepsy cases among the elderly are ...

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DIETARY, IMMUNOLOGICAL, SURGICAL, AND OTHER EMERGING TREATMENTS FOR PEDIATRIC REFRACTORY STATUS EPILEPTICUS

Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is often defined as a prolonged seizure which fails to respond to two or more anti-seizure medications (ASMs), including at least one non-benzodiazepine ASM [1]. In children, RSE is a devastating condition associated with considerable mortality and long-term neurological morbidity [2,3]. For example, the case fatality for convulsive status epilepticus (SE) was 11% in the north London cohort, with cumulative incidence of epilepsy, intellectual disability, and motor impairment of 25%, 12%, and 5% respectively in survivors ...

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A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial comparing the efficacy and safety of extended- and immediate-release levetiracetam in people with partial epilepsy

Epilepsy is a serious chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures, which have significant impacts on both health and quality of life of affected individuals. For people with epilepsy, adherence to antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens is crucial for seizure control and can maximize the quality of life [1]. Nonadherence may result in breakthrough seizures with serious consequences that may also compromise an individual’s perceived quality of life [2].

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Review on the Relevance of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Levetiracetam

In clinical practice, most dosing schemes for pharmacological treatment of epilepsy are based on efficacy (i.e. seizure reduction) and tolerability (i.e. side-effects). However, one can anticipate clinical effects (efficacy and tolerability) by measuring anti-epileptic drug (AED) serum drug concentrations (SDCs). This constellation is true for some older AEDs, such as phenytoin, since they imply regular monitoring of SDCs due to their non-linear pharmacokinetics and/or small therapeutic range [1].

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Home video telemetry in children: A comparison to inpatient video telemetry

Epilepsy affects 36,000 children in the UK and is associated with a mortality rate twice that of the general population [1,2]. Making an accurate diagnosis can be difficult and up to 30% of children admitted acutely with paroxysmal events initially diagnosed as epileptic have their diagnosis overturned [3]. EEG has long been used to aid in the diagnosis of epilepsy but it relies heavily on ictal capture as a normal inter-ictal EEG does not refute a diagnosis of epilepsy and ...

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LATERALIZING AND LOCALIZING VALUE OF SEIZURE SEMIOLOGY: COMPARISON WITH SCALP EEG, MRI AND PET IN PATIENTS SUCCESSFULLY TREATED WITH RESECTIVE EPILEPSY SURGERY

Video-EEG monitoring is essential for the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. Many authors have described the characteristic features of seizures arising from different brain locations [1–11]. Analysis of video recordings of seizures is usually descriptive and non-standardized in contrast to interictal/ictal EEG patterns or neuroimaging which often receive much greater attention [12]. The value of seizure semiology has not been quantified relative to other modalities such as EEG, MRI or PET.

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Homozygous missense TPP1 mutation associated with mild late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and the genotype-phenotype correlation

TPP1 (OMIM*607998) encodes lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1), a member of the serine-carboxyl proteinase family. TPP1 is an aminopeptidase that releases of N-terminal tripeptides from a polypeptide and is involved in the processing of neuron-specific trophic factors [1–2]. This protein also shows minor endopeptidase activity [3]. Deficient TPP1 activity in mutant mouse models resulted in intralysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent storage materials, neuronal loss, and widespread axonal degeneration [4].

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