Caregiver burden in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) semiologically mimic epileptic seizures (ES) but lack their neurobiological and neurophysiological basis.[1] PNES represent 10-30% of referrals to epilepsy specialists,[2,3] and their prevalence in the general population is estimated at 2 to 33 per 100,000.[3] They constitute a significant public health issue with an estimated lifetime cost per patient cohort year in the US ranging from $110-920 million.[4]

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Neonatal neuroimaging and neurophysiology predict infantile onset epilepsy after perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) due to perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 2,5 per 1000 live full-term births [1], and is one of the leading causes of neonatal deaths and severe developmental and neurological compromise [2]. HIE is also one of the most common causes of infantile spasms syndrome (IS) [3] accounting for 8-10% of all IS cases [4,5]. HIE is currently treated with therapeutic hypothermia, which despite its favorable effect on the overall outcome, does not affect the rate of postneonatal ...

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Slow Wave Activity during NREM Sleep in Patients with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep

We share our research findings regarding slow-wave activity (SWA) evaluation in patients with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep (ESES) compared to sex-matched controls. Slow-wave sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation and learning processes1,2. Many patients with ESES present with neurocognitive and learning difficulties3. Impaired SWA in sleep, in particular downscaling of slow wave activity during the course of the night, may therefore in part be related to neurocognitive difficulties in patients with ESES3.

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Seizure Control and Anxiety: Which Factor Plays a Major Role in Social Adjustment in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy?

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) is the most common generalized genetically determined epilepsy syndrome in adults and accounts for 5–10% of all epilepsy cases (1). The syndrome is characterized by the presence of myoclonic seizures (100%), generalized-tonic-clonic seizures (GTC) (80 – 90%), and typical absence seizures (30%). The treatment consists of a balance between the avoidance of precipitating factors and antiseizure medication (ASM) (2,3).

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Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in epileptic encephalopathies in childhood

In 2015 the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined status epilepticus (SE) as a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures, with long-term consequences, including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures. This is a proposed conceptual definition of SE, based on two operational time dimensions (t1 and t2), recognizing the variable ...

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Cardiogenic cerebral infarction in the parietal lobe predicts the development of post-stroke epilepsy

Seizures are a common neurological disorder in older people with the cumulative incidence of epilepsy through age 74 years was 3.0% [1]. Particularly traumatic brain injuries and abnormal cerebral lesions are associated with an increased risk for developing epileptic seizures. Currently, such symptomatic etiologies account for 30%–49% of all unprovoked seizures and epilepsy [1,2]. Additionally, stroke is a predominant epileptogenic condition and the main cause of seizures in the elderly. Seizures after stroke can be divided into two broad categories: ...

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Recurrent cardiac arrest in a medical doctor: Role of history taking in today’s era of technology

Sudden loss of consciousness has a variety of differential diagnoses varying from a seizure to a cardiac syncope. The diagnosis may be difficult and at times even the investigations can be non-contributory. An inquiry into the chronology of symptoms can be helpful. We herewith present a medical doctor patient with episodic loss of consciousness with self-witnessed bradycardia and pauses in his pulse prior to passing out.

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Early-onset rapidly progressive myoclonic epilepsy associated with G392R likely pathogenic variant in SERPINI1

Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) associated with neuroserpinosis due to mutations in the SERPINI1 gene is a recently described neurodegenerative disorder. Neuroserpin accumulation in neuronal inclusions causes a clinical phenotype changing between severe childhood-onset PME and presenile dementia [1]. We report a 10-year-old boy who had de novo, heterozygous G392R likely pathogenic variant in the SERPINI1 with early-onset rapidly progressive myoclonic epilepsy.

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