EEG Findings in NMDA encephalitis – a systematic review

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (NMDARE) is becoming a well-recognised cause of symptomatic seizures in the context of an encephalitic illness. Directly pathogenic anti-NMDA receptor antibodies bind to the glutamate subunit of the NMDA receptor, leading to receptor capping and internalisation [1–3]. Neuronal dysfunction in fronto-striatal connections and prefrontal networks, leads to the clinical symptom clusters including psychiatric features, movement disorders, autonomic disturbances and seizures.

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Caregiver impact and health service use in high and low severity Dravet syndrome: a multinational cohort study

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare and complex developmental encephalopathy characterised by refractory epilepsy, motor and cognitive impairments, and behavioural disorders (such as attention/hyperactivity symptoms, autistic traits, conduct problems and problems with peer relationships).[1–3] Families of children with DS report significant health and social burden, however, few studies have assessed the magnitude of this impact.[4]

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Risk Factors for Seizures after Cranioplasty

Decompressive craniectomy is a life-saving procedure that can alleviate intractable raised intracranial pressure caused by various brain injuries including trauma, hemorrhage, or large cerebral infarctions. Seizures have been reported in 3-92% of patients who receive craniectomy, [1] and their occurrence has been associated with multiple underlying etiologies. Cranioplasty is an elective procedure for skull reconstruction after decompressive craniectomy, and it has been shown to improve both psychosocial and cognitive functions [2–5].

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Attitudes towards epilepsy in the UK population: results from a 2018 national survey

Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological condition affecting at least 50 million people globally [1]. People with epilepsy often experience stigma and discrimination because of the condition and as such, their social and personal expectations are often restricted[2]. The experience of stigma may even affect their quality of life even more than the medical condition itself[3]. Where people with epilepsy feel prevented from living an ordinary life due to stigma resulting from negative attitudes, this may be an internal perception ...

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Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LiTT) in pediatric epilepsy surgery

On April 10, 2018, Medtronic announced the CE (Conformité Européenne) Mark and therewith the European launch of the Visualase MRI-guided laser ablation system [1]. The Visualase system and the Neuroblate system (Monteris Medical, Plymouth/Minnesota) – the latter of which is only marketed in North America so far – both allow for MRI-guided stereotactic laser thermoablation or laser interstitial thermotherapy (LiTT) of small predefined volumes of pathological brain tissue. The two major indications for this kind of innovative minimally invasive or ...

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Association between HLA-A*3201 allele and oxcarbazepine-induced cutaneous adverse reactions in Eastern Han Chinese population

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions, with more than 2% of the population worldwide affected according to the latest study [1]. As a chronic disease, epilepsy requires long-term treatment with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) [2]. Moreover, up to 30% of patients with epilepsy remain resistant to the standard therapy despite the multitude of available AEDs such as carbamazepine (CBZ), sodium valproate, and phenytoin (PHT) [3,4]. Oxcarbazepine (OXC), a 10-keto derivative of CBZ, has emerged as a relatively new ...

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Education in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) consist of paroxysmal changes in responsiveness, movements, or behavior that seemingly resemble epileptic seizures, but lack a neurobiological origin similar to epileptic seizures and are not associated with electrophysiological epileptic changes [1]. Learning problems are common among patients with PNES; however, they are often undiagnosed and untreated [2,3]. Intrinsic brain connectivity abnormalities and dysfunctions are being suggested in the pathophysiology of PNES [4], therefore, it is not irrational to presume that education and PNES may have ...

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Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy: The Neuro-Cardio-Respiratory Connection

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of epilepsy-related premature mortality with an annual rate ranging between 0.3 and 6 cases of SUDEP per 1000 adult persons with epilepsy and 1 case of SUDEP per 4,500 children [1,2]. SUDEP accounts for 8-17% of deaths in people with epilepsy. The etiology of SUDEP remains unknown. It is defined as sudden, unexpected, non-traumatic, non-drowning death in an individual with epilepsy, witnessed or unwitnessed, in which autopsy does not reveal ...

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Febrile seizures: Are they truly benign? Longitudinal analysis of risk factors and future risk of afebrile epileptic seizure based on the national sample cohort in South Korea, 2002-2013

Febrile seizure is a relatively common complication of fever that affects approximately 2 – 5% of children between the ages of three months and five years[1]. The incidence of febrile seizures varies geographically according to several studies, with incidence rates of 9.3% in Japan, 14% in Guam and 10% in India[2–4]. However, most previous studies were based on snapshot data from regional populations or hospital visits, and few population-based studies used longitudinal analysis from birth, especially in Korea [5–8].

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LOCALIZATION VALUE OF ICTAL TURNING PRONE

Ictal turning prone (ITP) was first described by Saygi et al as an ictal feature of frontal lobe “complex partial seizures” that distinguished them from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures with otherwise similar semiology [1]. Ictal turning prone can be considered a variation on “ictal body turning along the horizontal axis” described by Leung et al as a sign that helped further localize frontal lobe complex partial seizures [2]. Ictal body turning along the horizontal axis was defined as “truncal turning without ...

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