Decision analysis of intracranial monitoring in non-lesional epilepsy

Up to one third of patients with epilepsy develop medication-refractory epilepsy [1]. Surgery is often an effective treatment for these patients. Several studies, including a randomized controlled trial and a decision analysis [2,3], demonstrate the effectiveness of surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy. These patients have up to an 80% chance of post-operative seizure freedom. Similarly high rates of success are seen in lesional extratemporal epilepsy [4].

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Automated seizure detection systems and their effectiveness for each type of seizure

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders with an incidence of approximately 40-70/100,000 per year in adults [1] and 41-187/100,000 per year in children [2], being particularly frequent in rural and underdeveloped areas [1,3–5]. Almost 47% of patients will become seizure-free with the first anti-seizure medication trial and an additional 14% of patients with a second or third medicine [6]. Despite optimal medication management, about 20-30% of patients with epilepsy will continue to have more than one seizure ...

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Racial differences in Emergency Department visits for seizures

Seizures occur in 9–10% of the population [1]. Seizures are a common reason for Emergency Department (ED) visits, accounting for approximately 1–2% of ED visits in the U.S [2]. There is a growing body of literature highlighting disparities in seizure care related to race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Patients with low SES and seizures are not only more likely to utilize the ED for their seizure care when compared to those with high SES, but are also more likely ...

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Neuroimaging features in subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome)

The diagnosis of acute neurological disorders occurring in patients with a history of alcohol abuse may be challenging. An unusual picture of subacute encephalopathy with seizures (SESA syndrome) in chronic alcoholics was initially characterized by Niedermeyer et al. [1] and Freund and Niedermeyer [2] in 1981. SESA syndrome represents a distinct subtype of localization-related non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in which recurrent complex partial seizures occur in alcoholic adult individuals, with transient neurologic deficits, interictal periodic lateralized discharges (PLDs) on the ...

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The value of 24-hour video-EEG in evaluating recurrence risk following a first unprovoked seizure: A prospective study

A seizure is a clinical manifestation characterized by abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain that occurs instantaneously [1]. Seizures are categorized into provoked seizure and unprovoked seizure, according to whether there are one ore more predisposing factors [2]. A provoked seizure is defined as an acute occurrence caused by stroke, traumatic brain injury, intracranial surgery, central nervous system (CNS) infections or other acute brain disease. And an unprovoked seizure is of unknown cause.

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Cognitive performance in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients with specific endophenotypes

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a generalized genetic epilepsy (GGE) syndrome, clinically characterized by irregular jerks mainly of shoulders and arms after awakening, with peak of onset between 12 and 18 years, and electroencephalographically by bilateral and synchronous 4–6/s spike and wave complexes, often in the form of polyspike and waves [1]. The main seizure type is myoclonia occurring on awakening, i.e., within 2h, present in all cases. Around 90% of JME patients have generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and 30% ...

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