Detection of interictal epileptiform discharges in an extended scalp EEG array and high‐density EEG – A prospective multicenter study

Abstract

Objectives

High counts of averaged interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are key components of accurate interictal electric source imaging (ESI) in patients with focal epilepsy. Automated detections may be time-efficient, but they need to identify the correct IED types. Thus, we compared semiautomated and automated detection of IED types in long-term video EEG monitoring (LTM) using an extended scalp EEG array and short-term high-density EEG (hdEEG) with visual detection of IED types and the seizure onset zone (SOZ).

Methods

We prospectively recruited consecutive patients ...

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The efficacy and safety of cannabidivarin treatment on epilepsy in girls with Rett syndrome: A phase I clinical trial

Summary

Objective

Rett Syndrome (RTT), commonly caused by methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) pathogenic variants, has many co-morbidities. 50-90% of children with RTT have epilepsy which is often drug resistant. Cannabidivarin (CBDV), a non-hallucinogenic phytocannabinoid has shown benefit in MECP2 animal models. This Phase I trial assessed the safety and tolerability of CBDV in female children with RTT and drug resistant epilepsy, as well as the effect on mean monthly seizure frequency (MMSF), the electroencephalogram (EEG), and non-epilepsy co-morbid symptoms.

Methods

Five female children with ...

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Limbic and paralimbic respiratory modulation: from inhibition to enhancement

Abstract

Objective

Increased understanding of the role of cortical structures in respiratory control may help the understanding of seizure-induced respiratory dysfunction that leads to sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The aim of this study was to characterize respiratory responses to electrical stimulation (ES), including inhibition and enhancement of respiration.

Methods

We prospectively recruited 19 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing stereotactic EEG evaluation from June 2015 to June 2018. Inclusion criteria were patients ≥18 years and in whom ES was indicated for clinical mapping ...

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Anticonvulsive properties of soticlestat, a novel cholesterol 24‐hydroxylase inhibitor

Abstract

Objective

The formation of 24S-hydroxycholesterol is a brain-specific mechanism of cholesterol catabolism catalyzed by cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1, also known as CH24H). CH24H has been implicated in various biological mechanisms, whereas pharmacological lowering of 24S-hydroxycholesterol has not been fully studied. Soticlestat is a novel small-molecule inhibitor of CH24H. Its therapeutic potential was previously identified in a mouse model with an epileptic phenotype. In the present study, the anticonvulsive property of soticlestat was characterized in rodent models of epilepsy that have long been ...

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Convolutional neural network‐aided tuber segmentation in tuberous sclerosis complex patients correlates with electroencephalogram

Abstract

Objective

One of the clinical hallmarks of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is radiologically identified cortical tubers, which are present in most patients. Intractable epilepsy may require surgery, often involving invasive diagnostic procedures such as intracranial electroencephalography (EEG). Identifying the location of the dominant tuber responsible for generating epileptic activities is a critical issue. However, the link between cortical tubers and epileptogenesis is poorly understood. Given this, we hypothesized that tuber voxel intensity may be an indicator of the dominant epileptogenic tuber. ...

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Sustained seizure freedom with adjunctive brivaracetam in patients with focal onset seizures

Abstract

The maintenance of seizure control over time is a clinical priority in patients with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to assess the sustained seizure frequency reduction with adjunctive brivaracetam (BRV) in real-world practice. Patients with focal epilepsy prescribed add-on BRV were identified. Study outcomes included sustained seizure freedom and sustained seizure response, defined as a 100% and a ≥50% reduction in baseline seizure frequency that continued without interruption and without BRV withdrawal through the 12-month follow-up. Nine hundred ...

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Heterogeneity of patients with functional/dissociative seizures: Three multidimensional profiles

ABSTRACT

Objective

Current concepts highlight the neurological and psychological heterogeneity of functional/dissociative seizures (FDS). However, it remains uncertain whether it is possible to distinguish between a limited number of subtypes of FDS disorders. We aimed to identify profiles of distinct FDS subtypes by cluster analysis of a multidimensional dataset without any a priori hypothesis.

Methods

We conducted an exploratory, prospective multicenter study of 169 patients with FDS. We collected biographical, trauma (childhood and adulthood traumatic experiences), semiological (seizure characteristics) and psychopathological data (psychiatric comorbidities, ...

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Trends in resource utilization and cost of illness in patients with active epilepsy in Germany from 2003 to 2020

Abstract

Objective

To calculate epilepsy-related direct, indirect, and total costs in adult patients with active epilepsy (ongoing unprovoked seizures) in Germany and to analyze cost components and dynamics compared to previous studies from 2003, 2008 and 2013. This analysis was part of the Epi2020 study.

Methods

Direct and indirect costs related to epilepsy were calculated with a multicenter survey using an established and validated questionnaire with a bottom-up design and human capital approach over a 3-month period in late 2020. Epilepsy-specific costs in the ...

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Sustained seizure freedom with adjunctive brivaracetam in patients with focal‐onset seizures

Summary

The maintenance of seizure control over time is a clinical priority in patients with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to assess the sustained seizure frequency reduction with adjunctive brivaracetam (BRV) in real-world practice. Patients with focal epilepsy prescribed to add-on BRV were identified. Study outcomes included the sustained seizure freedom and sustained seizure response, defined as a 100% and a ≥50% reduction in baseline seizure frequency that continued without interruption and without BRV withdrawal through the 12-month follow-up. ...

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