Overweight in epilepsy as a risk factor for pregnancy and delivery complications

Summary

Objective

To investigate whether prepregnancy overweight in women with epilepsy increases their risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery.

Methods

This study is based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A diagnosis of epilepsy was reported in 706 pregnancies. Overweight was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 prepregnancy. Overweight women with epilepsy (n = 259) were compared to normal-weight women with epilepsy (n = 416), and to ...

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2-Deoxy-d-glucose enhances tonic inhibition through the neurosteroid-mediated activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors

Summary

Objective

The inhibition of glycolysis exerts potent antiseizure effects, as demonstrated by the efficacy of ketogenic and low-glucose/nonketogenic diets in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels have been initially identified as the main determinant of the reduction of neuronal hyperexcitability. However, a plethora of other mechanisms have been proposed. Herein, we report the ability of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analog that inhibits glycolytic enzymes, of potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic tonic inhibition via neurosteroid-mediated activation of ...

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2-Deoxy-d-glucose enhances tonic inhibition through the neurosteroid-mediated activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors

Summary

Objective

The inhibition of glycolysis exerts potent antiseizure effects, as demonstrated by the efficacy of ketogenic and low-glucose/nonketogenic diets in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels have been initially identified as the main determinant of the reduction of neuronal hyperexcitability. However, a plethora of other mechanisms have been proposed. Herein, we report the ability of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analog that inhibits glycolytic enzymes, of potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic tonic inhibition via neurosteroid-mediated activation of ...

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MicroRNA-139-5p negatively regulates NR2A-containing NMDA receptor in the rat pilocarpine model and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

Summary

Objectives

Regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subunits NR2A and NR2B expression during status epilepticus (SE) remains incompletely understood. Here we explored the role of brain-enriched microRNA (miR)-139-5p in this process.

Methods

miRNA microarray was performed to examine changes in miRNA expression in the rat pilocarpine model following NMDA-receptor blockade. The dynamic expression patterns of miR-139-5p, NR2A, and NR2B levels were measured in rats during the three phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) development using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ...

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MicroRNA-139-5p negatively regulates NR2A-containing NMDA receptor in the rat pilocarpine model and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

Summary

Objectives

Regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subunits NR2A and NR2B expression during status epilepticus (SE) remains incompletely understood. Here we explored the role of brain-enriched microRNA (miR)-139-5p in this process.

Methods

miRNA microarray was performed to examine changes in miRNA expression in the rat pilocarpine model following NMDA-receptor blockade. The dynamic expression patterns of miR-139-5p, NR2A, and NR2B levels were measured in rats during the three phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) development using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ...

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Remembrance and time passed: Memory outcomes 4–11 years after pediatric epilepsy surgery

Summary

Objective

Little is known about the long-term cognitive outcomes following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although the evidence for change within the first 2 years is not compelling, the plasticity of the immature brain may allow for improvements in the long term. This study examined memory function in a cohort of surgical and nonsurgical patients at baseline and 4–11 years after.

Method

Participants were 88 patients (mean age 20.05, standard deviation [SD] 4.21 years) with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 53 had undergone ...

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Remembrance and time passed: Memory outcomes 4–11 years after pediatric epilepsy surgery

Summary

Objective

Little is known about the long-term cognitive outcomes following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although the evidence for change within the first 2 years is not compelling, the plasticity of the immature brain may allow for improvements in the long term. This study examined memory function in a cohort of surgical and nonsurgical patients at baseline and 4–11 years after.

Method

Participants were 88 patients (mean age 20.05, standard deviation [SD] 4.21 years) with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 53 had undergone ...

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Ripples on spikes show increased phase-amplitude coupling in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy seizure-onset zones

Summary

Objective

Ripples (80–150 Hz) recorded from clinical macroelectrodes have been shown to be an accurate biomarker of epileptogenic brain tissue. We investigated coupling between epileptiform spike phase and ripple amplitude to better understand the mechanisms that generate this type of pathologic ripple (pRipple) event.

Methods

We quantified phase amplitude coupling (PAC) between epileptiform electroencephalography (EEG) spike phase and ripple amplitude recorded from intracranial depth macroelectrodes during episodes of sleep in 12 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PAC was ...

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Quality indicators for the adult epilepsy monitoring unit

Summary

Objective

Quality and safety in epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs) are of great importance because patients’ seizures are induced rather than prevented in this hospital setting. However, the measurement and evaluation of quality and safety in EMUs are heterogeneous, as are practices and processes of care. To improve the measurement of quality and safety in EMUs, we sought to develop evidence-based and consensus-driven quality indicators, adhering to previously described methodologic standards.

Methods

Candidate quality indicators were identified using a recent ...

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Quality and safety in adult epilepsy monitoring units: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Summary

Objective

The epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) is a valuable resource for optimizing management of persons with epilepsy, but may place patients at risk for adverse events due to withdrawal of treatment and induction of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data on the safety and quality of care in EMUs to inform the development of quality indicators for EMUs.

Methods

A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting and Items for Systematic Review and ...

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