Deep learning resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

Localization of focal epilepsy is critical for surgical treatment of refractory seizures. There remains a great need for noninvasive techniques to localize seizures for surgical decision-making. We investigate the use of deep learning using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to identify the hemisphere of seizure onset in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients.

Methods

A total of 2132 healthy controls and 32 preoperative TLE patients were studied. All participants underwent structural MRI and RS-fMRI. Healthy control data were used to generate ...

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A pharmacogenomic assessment of psychiatric adverse drug reactions to levetiracetam

Abstract

Objective

Levetiracetam (LEV) is an effective antiseizure medicine, but 10%–20% of people treated with LEV report psychiatric side-effects, and up to 1% may have psychotic episodes. Pharmacogenomic predictors of these adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have yet to be identified. We sought to determine the contribution of both common and rare genetic variation to psychiatric and behavioral ADRs associated with LEV.

Methods

This case-control study compared cases of LEV-associated behavioral disorder (n = 149) or psychotic reaction (n = 37) to LEV-exposed people with no history of psychiatric ...

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The efficacy and safety of cannabidivarin treatment on epilepsy in girls with Rett syndrome: A phase I clinical trial

Summary

Objective

Rett Syndrome (RTT), commonly caused by methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) pathogenic variants, has many co-morbidities. 50-90% of children with RTT have epilepsy which is often drug resistant. Cannabidivarin (CBDV), a non-hallucinogenic phytocannabinoid has shown benefit in MECP2 animal models. This Phase I trial assessed the safety and tolerability of CBDV in female children with RTT and drug resistant epilepsy, as well as the effect on mean monthly seizure frequency (MMSF), the electroencephalogram (EEG), and non-epilepsy co-morbid symptoms.

Methods

Five female children with ...

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Long‐term seizure outcomes in patients with autoimmune encephalitis: A prospective observational registry study update

SUMMARY

Objective

To update and evaluate long-term seizure outcomes in patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) based on a large cohort study with long follow-up.

Methods

In this prospective observational registry study, we analyzed data from patients with AE mediated by common types of neuronal surface antibodies (anti-NMDAR, anti-LGI1/Caspr2, anti-GABABR). All patients were recruited from the Department of Neurology at the West China Hospital between October 2011 and June 2019, and data were collected prospectively on their demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment strategy, and seizure ...

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Detection of interictal epileptiform discharges in an extended scalp EEG array and high‐density EEG – A prospective multicenter study

Abstract

Objectives

High counts of averaged interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are key components of accurate interictal electric source imaging (ESI) in patients with focal epilepsy. Automated detections may be time-efficient, but they need to identify the correct IED types. Thus, we compared semiautomated and automated detection of IED types in long-term video EEG monitoring (LTM) using an extended scalp EEG array and short-term high-density EEG (hdEEG) with visual detection of IED types and the seizure onset zone (SOZ).

Methods

We prospectively recruited consecutive patients ...

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Limbic and paralimbic respiratory modulation: from inhibition to enhancement

Abstract

Objective

Increased understanding of the role of cortical structures in respiratory control may help the understanding of seizure-induced respiratory dysfunction that leads to sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The aim of this study was to characterize respiratory responses to electrical stimulation (ES), including inhibition and enhancement of respiration.

Methods

We prospectively recruited 19 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing stereotactic EEG evaluation from June 2015 to June 2018. Inclusion criteria were patients ≥18 years and in whom ES was indicated for clinical mapping ...

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Anticonvulsive properties of soticlestat, a novel cholesterol 24‐hydroxylase inhibitor

Abstract

Objective

The formation of 24S-hydroxycholesterol is a brain-specific mechanism of cholesterol catabolism catalyzed by cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1, also known as CH24H). CH24H has been implicated in various biological mechanisms, whereas pharmacological lowering of 24S-hydroxycholesterol has not been fully studied. Soticlestat is a novel small-molecule inhibitor of CH24H. Its therapeutic potential was previously identified in a mouse model with an epileptic phenotype. In the present study, the anticonvulsive property of soticlestat was characterized in rodent models of epilepsy that have long been ...

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Convolutional neural network‐aided tuber segmentation in tuberous sclerosis complex patients correlates with electroencephalogram

Abstract

Objective

One of the clinical hallmarks of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is radiologically identified cortical tubers, which are present in most patients. Intractable epilepsy may require surgery, often involving invasive diagnostic procedures such as intracranial electroencephalography (EEG). Identifying the location of the dominant tuber responsible for generating epileptic activities is a critical issue. However, the link between cortical tubers and epileptogenesis is poorly understood. Given this, we hypothesized that tuber voxel intensity may be an indicator of the dominant epileptogenic tuber. ...

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Sustained seizure freedom with adjunctive brivaracetam in patients with focal onset seizures

Abstract

The maintenance of seizure control over time is a clinical priority in patients with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to assess the sustained seizure frequency reduction with adjunctive brivaracetam (BRV) in real-world practice. Patients with focal epilepsy prescribed add-on BRV were identified. Study outcomes included sustained seizure freedom and sustained seizure response, defined as a 100% and a ≥50% reduction in baseline seizure frequency that continued without interruption and without BRV withdrawal through the 12-month follow-up. Nine hundred ...

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