Concussive convulsions: A YouTube video analysis

Summary

Objective

To analyze seizure-like motor phenomena immediately occurring after concussion (concussive convulsions).

Methods

Twenty-five videos of concussive convulsions were obtained from YouTube as a result of numerous sports-related search terms. The videos were analyzed by four independent observers, documenting observations of the casualty, the head injury, motor symptoms of the concussive convulsions, the postictal period, and the outcome.

Results

Immediate responses included the fencing response, bear hug position, and bilateral leg extension. Fencing response was the most common. The side ...

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Estradiol does not affect spasms in the betamethasone-NMDA rat model of infantile spasms

Summary

Objective

This study attempted to validate the effects of neonatal estradiol in ameliorating the spasms in the prenatally betamethasone-primed N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) model of infantile spasms in rats as shown previously in a mouse Arx gene knock-in expansion model of infantile spasms.

Methods

Neonatal rats prenatally exposed to betamethasone (on day 15 of pregnancy) were treated with subcutaneous 40 ng/g estradiol benzoate (EB) between postnatal days (P)3–P10 or P0–P5. A synthetic estrogen analogue, diethylstilbestrol, was used between P0 and P5 ...

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Long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of childhood and adolescent-onset epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To estimate long-term socioeconomic consequences and health care costs of epilepsy with onset in childhood and adolescence.

Methods

A historical prospective cohort study of Danish individuals with epilepsy, age up to 20 years at time of diagnosis between January 1981 and December 2012. Information about marital status, parenthood, educational level, employment status, income, use of the health care system, and cost of medicine was obtained from nationwide administrative and health registers.

Results

We identified 12,756 and 28,319 people with diagnosed ...

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Withdrawal of valproic acid treatment during pregnancy and seizure outcome: Observations from EURAP

Summary

Based on data from the EURAP observational International registry of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and pregnancy, we assessed changes in seizure control and subsequent AED changes in women who underwent attempts to withdraw valproic acid (VPA) during the first trimester of pregnancy. Applying Bayesian statistics, we compared seizure control in pregnancies where VPA was withdrawn (withdrawal group, n = 93), switched to another AED (switch group, n = 38), or maintained (maintained-therapy group, n = 1,588) during the ...

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Prevention of infantile spasms relapse: Zonisamide and topiramate provide no benefit

Summary

Objective

There is scant evidence to guide the management of infantile spasms after successful response to initial therapies. There is significant risk of relapse, largely because effective pharmacologic treatments cannot be continued long term because of concern for significant adverse events. Zonisamide (ZNS) and topiramate (TPM) are commonly used to prevent relapse, and the purpose of this study was to specifically evaluate the efficacy of ZNS and TPM as agents for secondary prevention of infantile spasms.

Methods

Patients with ...

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Neuronal networks in epileptic encephalopathies with CSWS

Summary

Objective

The aim of our study was to investigate the neuronal networks underlying background oscillations of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS).

Methods

Sleep electroencephalography (EEG) studies before and after the treatment were investigated in 15 patients with CSWS. To investigate functional and effective connectivity within the network generating the delta activity in the background sleep EEG, the methods of dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) and renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC) were applied.

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5-Hydroxytryptophan, a precursor for serotonin synthesis, reduces seizure-induced respiratory arrest

Summary

Objective

The DBA/1 mouse is a relevant animal model of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), as it exhibits seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) evoked by acoustic stimulation, followed by cardiac arrhythmia and death. Defects in serotonergic neurotransmission may contribute to S-IRA. The tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) enzyme converts L-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor for central nervous system (CNS) serotonin (5-HT) synthesis; and DBA/1 mice have a polymorphism that decreases TPH2 activity. We, therefore, hypothesized that supplementation with 5-HTP ...

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