Anti-ictogenic and antiepileptogenic properties of perampanel in mature and immature rats

Summary

Objective

Perampanel (PER) is a selective noncompetitive antagonist at α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, the first of its class approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial onset seizures and generalized seizures. This study explored anti-ictogenic and antiepileptogenic effects of PER in rats at different stages of development.

Methods

Using a rapid kindling model in postnatal day 14 (P14), P21, P28, and P60 rats, we studied two doses of PER: 1 and 2 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally 30 min before afterdischarge assessment. We also assessed ...

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On the relationship between calcified neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in an endemic village: A large-scale, computed tomography–based population study in rural Ecuador

Summary

Objective

Using a large-scale population-based study, we aimed to assess prevalence and patterns of presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC) and its relationship with epilepsy in community-dwellers aged ≥20 years living in Atahualpa (rural Ecuador).

Methods

In a three-phase epidemiological study, individuals with suspected seizures were identified during a door-to-door survey and an interview (phase I). Then, neurologists evaluated suspected cases and randomly selected negative persons to estimate epilepsy prevalence (phase II). In phase III, all participants were offered noncontrast computed tomography ...

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Brivaracetam does not modulate ionotropic channels activated by glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and glycine in hippocampal neurons

Summary

Brivaracetam (BRV) is a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), recently approved as adjunctive treatment for drug-refractory partial-onset seizures in adults. BRV binds SV2A with higher affinity than levetiracetam (LEV), and was shown to have a differential interaction with SV2A. Because LEV was reported to interact with multiple excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels and that may impact its pharmacological profile, we were interested in determining whether BRV directly modulates inhibitory and excitatory ionotropic ...

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Health-related quality of life and emotional well-being after epilepsy surgery: A prospective, controlled, long-term follow-up

Summary

Objective

To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and emotional well-being in resective epilepsy surgery and nonoperated patients at long-term follow-up.

Methods

This is a prospective cohort study where patients undergoing presurgical work-up during 1995–1998 completed the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) at baseline, and 2 and 14 years after resective surgery or presurgical evaluation (nonoperated patients). SF-36 scores were compared to a normative population. Proportions of patients reaching HRQOL changes of minimum ...

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Health-related quality of life and emotional well-being after epilepsy surgery: A prospective, controlled, long-term follow-up

Summary

Objective

To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and emotional well-being in resective epilepsy surgery and nonoperated patients at long-term follow-up.

Methods

This is a prospective cohort study where patients undergoing presurgical work-up during 1995–1998 completed the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) at baseline, and 2 and 14 years after resective surgery or presurgical evaluation (nonoperated patients). SF-36 scores were compared to a normative population. Proportions of patients reaching HRQOL changes of minimum ...

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A distinct clinicopathological variant of focal cortical dysplasia IIId characterized by loss of layer 4 in the occipital lobe in 12 children with remote hypoxic–ischemic injury

Summary

Objective

In 2011, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a consensus classification system of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) to distinguish clinicopathological subtypes, for example, “isolated” FCD type Ia–c and IIa–b, versus “associated” FCD type IIIa–d. The histopathological differentiation of FCD type I and III variants remains, however, a challenging issue in everyday practice. We present a unique histopathological pattern in patients with difficult-to-diagnose FCD, which highlights this dilemma, but also helps to refine the current ILAE classification ...

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Pharmacokinetic variability of valproate in women of childbearing age

Summary

The purpose was to investigate pharmacokinetic variability of valproic acid (VPA) in women of childbearing age by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data to elucidate the variable relationship between dose and serum concentrations with the ultimate aim of facilitating safer use of VPA. Anonymized retrospective data from the TDM database (2006–2015) at the National Center for Epilepsy in Norway were used. Trough total concentrations of VPA at assumed steady state in women aged 14–46 years were analyzed. Data ...

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Treatment with lacosamide impedes generalized seizures in a rodent model of cortical dysplasia

Summary

Objective

Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder resulting in spontaneous, recurrent seizures. About 30–40% of patients are not responsive to pharmacologic therapies. This may be due to the differences between individual patients such as etiology, underlying pathophysiology, and seizure focus, and it highlights the importance of new drug discovery and testing in this field. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of lacosamide (LCM), a drug approved for the treatment of focal seizures, in a model of generalized ...

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MicroRNA and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: Whole miRNome profiling of human hippocampus

Summary

Objective

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a severe neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. mTLE is frequently accompanied by neurodegeneration in the hippocampus resulting in hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common morphological correlate of drug resistance in mTLE patients. Incomplete knowledge of pathological changes in mTLE+HS complicates its therapy. The pathological mechanism underlying mTLE+HS may involve abnormal gene expression regulation, including posttranscriptional networks involving microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNA expression deregulation has been reported in various disorders, including epilepsy. ...

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Lacosamide in the treatment of patients with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities: A long-term study of 136 patients

Summary

Objective

This study aimed to analyze the retention rate of lacosamide (LCM) in patients with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities (IDs), to identify factors influencing retention rate, and to investigate the LCM retention rate with and without concomitant sodium channel blocker (SCB). We hypothesized that the retention rate of LCM with concomitant SCB would be lower than without SCB.

Methods

Using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, we conducted a monocentric, retrospective, observational, open-label study to evaluate LCM retention rates in patients with ...

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