Who seizes longest? Impact of clinical and demographic factors

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the impact of clinical and demographic parameters on the duration of focal onset seizures with and without secondary generalization using precise duration measurements from intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings.

Methods

Patients with unifocal epilepsy syndromes and iEEG recording were retrospectively identified from the database of the local epilepsy center (2006‐2016). Seizure duration was defined as time difference of iEEG seizure pattern onset and cessation. The seizure semiology was classified based on video recordings. Clinical and demographic data were extracted from patient ...

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Relationship between saliva and plasma rufinamide concentrations in patients with epilepsy

Abstract

The assay of saliva samples provides a valuable alternative to the use of blood samples for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), at least for certain categories of patients. To determine the feasibility of using saliva sampling for the TDM of rufinamide, we compared rufinamide concentrations in paired samples of saliva and plasma collected from 26 patients with epilepsy at steady state. Within‐patient relationships between plasma rufinamide concentrations and dose, and the influence of comedication were also investigated. Assay results in the ...

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2‐Deoxyglucose terminates pilocarpine‐induced status epilepticus in neonatal rats

Abstract

Objective

Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is a life‐threatening medical emergency. Unfortunately, up to 50% of neonates with SE are resistant to current antiseizure drugs, highlighting the need for better treatments. This study aims to explore a novel metabolic approach as a potential alternative treatment to control neonatal SE, using the glycolytic inhibitor 2‐deoxyglucose (2‐DG).

Methods

SE was induced by pilocarpine (300 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) in neonatal Sprague Dawley rats (postnatal day 10 [P10]‐P17) and was monitored by video‐electroencephalography (V‐EEG). After 30 minutes of SE, 2‐DG ...

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Deciphering the surgical treatment gap for drug‐resistant epilepsy (DRE): A literature review

Abstract

Patients with drug‐resistant epilepsy (DRE) rarely achieve seizure freedom with medical therapy alone. Despite being safe and effective for select patients with DRE, epilepsy surgery remains heavily underutilized. Multiple studies have indicated that the overall rates of surgery in patients with DRE have stagnated in recent years and may be decreasing, even when hospitalizations for epilepsy‐related problems are on the rise. Ultimately, many patients with DRE who might otherwise benefit from surgery continue to have intractable seizures, lacking access to ...

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Behavioral phenotypes of childhood idiopathic epilepsies

Abstract

Objective

To characterize the presence and nature of discrete behavioral phenotypes and their correlates in a cohort of youth with new and recent onset focal and generalized epilepsies.

Methods

The parents of 290 youth (age = 8‐18 years) with epilepsy (n = 183) and typically developing participants (n = 107) completed the Child Behavior Checklist for children aged 6‐18 from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The eight behavior problem scales were subjected to hierarchical clustering analytics to identify behavioral subgroups. To characterize the external validity ...

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Changes in cognition after introduction or withdrawal of zonisamide versus topiramate in epilepsy patients: A retrospective study using Bayes statistics

Abstract

Objective

We aim to evaluate the impact of zonisamide (ZNS) compared to topiramate (TPM) on cognition in patients with epilepsy. Although the risk of cognitive side effects has been clearly demonstrated for TPM, comparable side effects in ZNS have been suggested but evidence from studies is inconclusive.

Methods

In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed patients’ records from before and after introduction or withdrawal of ZNS vs TPM. Data were gathered during routine clinical care protocols. Standardized monitoring of executive functions (EpiTrack), verbal ...

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Acute symptomatic seizures secondary to autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune‐associated epilepsy: Conceptual definitions

Abstract

Seizures are a well‐recognized and often prominent manifestation of autoimmune encephalitic syndromes. Progress in detection of pathogenic neural autoantibodies has led to increased awareness of autoimmune causes of seizures. Clinical studies of patients with these autoantibodies have improved our understanding of the seizure characteristics, treatments, and seizure prognosis in these disorders. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Autoimmunity and Inflammation Taskforce proposes conceptual definitions for two main diagnostic entities: (a) acute symptomatic seizures secondary to autoimmune encephalitis, and (b) autoimmune‐associated ...

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Trajectories of quality of life 10 years following a diagnosis of epilepsy in childhood

Abstract

Objective

This study estimated trajectories of health‐related quality of life (HRQOL) over a 10‐year period among children newly diagnosed with epilepsy. We also modeled the characteristics of children, parents, and families associated with each identified trajectory.

Methods

Data came from the HERQULES (Health‐Related Quality of Life in Children With Epilepsy Study), a Canada‐wide prospective cohort study of children (aged 4‐12 years) with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Parents reported on their children’s HRQOL at diagnosis, and at 0.5‐, 1‐, 2‐, 8‐, and 10‐year follow‐ups using the ...

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Planning stereoelectroencephalography using automated lesion detection: Retrospective feasibility study

Abstract

Objective

This retrospective, cross‐sectional study evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of incorporating deep‐learning on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into planning stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) implantation in pediatric patients with diagnostically complex drug‐resistant epilepsy. This study aimed to assess the degree of colocalization between automated lesion detection and the seizure onset zone (SOZ) as assessed by sEEG.

Methods

A neural network classifier was applied to cortical features from MRI data from three cohorts. (1) The network was trained and cross‐validated using 34 patients with ...

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Prevalence and psychopathologic significance of hallucinations in individuals with a history of seizures

Abstract

Objective

A relationship between seizure activity and hallucinations is well established. The psychopathologic significance of hallucinations in individuals with seizures, however, is unclear. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of auditory and visual hallucinations in individuals who reported a seizure history and investigated their relationship with a number of mental disorders, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts.

Methods

Data were from the “Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey,” a population‐based cross‐sectional survey. Auditory and visual hallucinations were assessed using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Mental health ...

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