The Epilepsy Surgery Grading Scale: Validation in an independent population with drug‐resistant focal epilepsy

Abstract

The Epilepsy Surgery Grading Scale (ESGS) is a simple tool that predicts a patient’s likelihood of progressing to resective surgery and becoming seizure‐free. The aim of our study was to validate the ESGS in an independent patient cohort. We retrospectively calculated the ESGS score for adult patients with drug‐resistant focal epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation at two reference centers for drug‐resistant epilepsy in Belgium. We classified patients into ESGS grade 1 (most favorable), grade 2 (intermediate), and grade 3 (least favorable). ...

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Effects of cannabidiol on brivaracetam plasma levels

Abstract

The use of cannabidiol (CBD) for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsies is increasing. CBD is metabolized via UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and cytochrome 450 (CYP) enzymes, but information on interactions with common anticonvulsive drugs is incomplete. We report a case series of five patients receiving adjunctive treatment with CBD who showed increases in brivaracetam (BRV) levels by 95% to 280%. Only two patients reported mild adverse events, leading to a reduction of BRV in one patient. One possible mechanism contributing at least partially ...

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Sulfasalazine decreases mouse cortical hyperexcitability

Abstract

Objective

Currently prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are ineffective in treating approximately 30% of epilepsy patients. Sulfasalazine (SAS) is an US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved drug for the treatment of Crohn disease that has been shown to inhibit the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc‐ (SXC) and decrease tumor‐associated seizures. This study evaluates the effect of SAS on distinct pharmacologically induced network excitability and determines whether it can further decrease hyperexcitability when administered with currently prescribed AEDs.

Methods

Using in vitro cortical mouse brain slices, ...

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A potential role of hypophosphatemia for diagnosing convulsive seizures: A case‐control study

Abstract

Objective

Transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is a common presentation in the emergency room, where patient history can usually differentiate syncope from generalized tonic‐clonic (GTC) seizures. Several serum markers, such as creatine kinase and lactate, can be helpful, especially when history is unreliable. Here, we explore a potential supporting role of electrolyte plasma levels in a case‐control study.

Methods

In our electroencephalographic database, we retrospectively identified consecutive episodes of loss of consciousness in adults seen over 3 years in our hospital emergency department for ...

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Advancing research toward faster diagnosis, better treatment, and end of stigma in epilepsy

Abstract

Seven large European Union (EU)–funded epilepsy‐related research projects joined forces in May 2018 in Brussels, Belgium, in a unique community building event—the epiXchange conference. During this conference, 170 investigators from the projects DESIRE, EpimiRNA, EPISTOP, EpiTarget, EpiXchange, and EpiPGX as well as the European Reference Network EpiCARE, met up with key stakeholders including representatives of the European Commission, patient organizations, commercial partners, and other European and International groups. The epiXchange conference focused on sharing and reviewing the advances made by ...

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Cav3.2 T‐type calcium channel mutation influences kindling‐induced thalamic neuronal firing patterns in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats From Strasbourg

Abstract

Objective

Recent data indicate that amygdala kindling leads to significant changes in interictal neuronal firing patterns of thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) neurons by decreasing the spontaneous firing rate and increasing burst firing in nonepileptic control (NEC) rats. Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats From Strasbourg (GAERS) were resistant to these kindling‐induced firing changes in TRN neurons, and are also resistant to the progression of kindling. We investigated whether a homozygous, missense, single nucleotide mutation (R1584P) in the Cav3.2 T‐type Ca2+ channel gene, which ...

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Stereotactic thermocoagulation for insular epilepsy: Lessons from successes and failures

Abstract

Objective

To assess factors associated with favorable outcome in refractory insular epilepsy treated by volume‐based stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC).

Methods

We performed volume‐based RFTC in 19 patients (11 males, 7‐44 years old). The volume for thermocoagulation was identified by multimodal data including electroencephalography (EEG)‐video, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography (PET) in all patients, and epileptogenic zone (EZ) was assessed by stereo‐electroencephalography (SEEG) in 16. MRI showed insular lesions in four patients (benign tumors, n = 2; focal cortical dysplasia [FCD], n ...

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Epilepsy in nonhuman primates

Abstract

Objectives

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are model organisms for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of epilepsy in humans, while data from human patients informs the diagnosis and treatment of NHP with seizures and epilepsy. We reviewed the literature and surveyed veterinarians at zoos and NHP research centers to (a) better define the range of seizures and epilepsy in NHP, (b) understand how NHPs can inform our knowledge of the pathophysiology and treatment of epilepsy in humans, and (c) identify gaps of knowledge ...

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