Similarities and differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between brain gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To analyze the conceptual and practical implications of a hodotopic approach in neurosurgery, and to compare the similarities and the differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between low-grade gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy.

Methods

We review the recent data about the hodotopic organization of the brain connectome, alongside the organization of epileptic networks, and analyze how these two structures interact, suggesting therapeutic prospects. Then we focus on the mechanisms of neuroplasticity involved in glioma natural course and after glioma surgery. Comparing ...

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Similarities and differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between brain gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To analyze the conceptual and practical implications of a hodotopic approach in neurosurgery, and to compare the similarities and the differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between low-grade gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy.

Methods

We review the recent data about the hodotopic organization of the brain connectome, alongside the organization of epileptic networks, and analyze how these two structures interact, suggesting therapeutic prospects. Then we focus on the mechanisms of neuroplasticity involved in glioma natural course and after glioma surgery. Comparing ...

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The impact of hypsarrhythmia on infantile spasms treatment response: Observational cohort study from the National Infantile Spasms Consortium

Summary

Objective

The multicenter National Infantile Spasms Consortium prospective cohort was used to compare outcomes and phenotypic features of patients with infantile spasms with and without hypsarrhythmia.

Methods

Patients aged 2 months to 2 years were enrolled prospectively with new-onset infantile spasms. Treatment choice and categorization of hypsarrhythmia were determined clinically at each site. Response to therapy was defined as resolution of clinical spasms (and hypsarrhythmia if present) without relapse 3 months after initiation.

Results

Eighty-two percent of patients had hypsarrhythmia, ...

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Cannabinoid receptor 1/2 double-knockout mice develop epilepsy

Summary

The endocannabinoid system has gained attention as an important modulator of activity in the central nervous system. Initial studies focused on cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is widely expressed in the brain, but recent work also implicates cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in modulating neuronal activity. Both receptors are capable of reducing neuronal activity, generating interest in cannabinoid receptor agonists as potential anticonvulsants. CB1 (Cnr1) and CB2 (Cnr2) single-knockout mice have been generated, with the former showing heightened ...

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Cannabinoid receptor 1/2 double-knockout mice develop epilepsy

Summary

The endocannabinoid system has gained attention as an important modulator of activity in the central nervous system. Initial studies focused on cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is widely expressed in the brain, but recent work also implicates cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in modulating neuronal activity. Both receptors are capable of reducing neuronal activity, generating interest in cannabinoid receptor agonists as potential anticonvulsants. CB1 (Cnr1) and CB2 (Cnr2) single-knockout mice have been generated, with the former showing heightened ...

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Verbal memory decline from hippocampal depth electrodes in temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To explore whether patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy risk aggravated verbal memory loss from intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) recording with longitudinal hippocampal electrodes in the language-dominant hemisphere.

Methods

A long-term neuropsychological follow-up (mean 61.5 months, range 22–111 months) was performed in 40 patients after ictal registration with left hippocampal depth electrodes (study group, n = 16) or no invasive EEG, only extracranial registration (reference group, n = 24). The groups were equal with respect to education, age ...

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Potentially high-risk cardiac arrhythmias with focal to bilateral tonic–clonic seizures and generalized tonic–clonic seizures are associated with the duration of periictal hypoxemia

Summary

Objective

To investigate potentially high-risk cardiac arrhythmias (PHAs) following focal to bilateral tonic–clonic seizures (FBTCSs) and generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) and to study the association of PHAs with seizure characteristics and the severity of associated ictal respiratory dysfunction.

Methods

Electrocardiographic (EKG) and pulse oximetry (SpO2) data were recorded concurrently with video-electroencephalographic telemetry in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). One minute of preictal EKG, the ictal EKG, and 2 min of ictal/postictal data were reviewed for each seizure. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, ...

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Potentially high-risk cardiac arrhythmias with focal to bilateral tonic–clonic seizures and generalized tonic–clonic seizures are associated with the duration of periictal hypoxemia

Summary

Objective

To investigate potentially high-risk cardiac arrhythmias (PHAs) following focal to bilateral tonic–clonic seizures (FBTCSs) and generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) and to study the association of PHAs with seizure characteristics and the severity of associated ictal respiratory dysfunction.

Methods

Electrocardiographic (EKG) and pulse oximetry (SpO2) data were recorded concurrently with video-electroencephalographic telemetry in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). One minute of preictal EKG, the ictal EKG, and 2 min of ictal/postictal data were reviewed for each seizure. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, ...

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Thalamocortical functional connectivity in Lennox–Gastaut syndrome is abnormally enhanced in executive-control and default-mode networks

Summary

Objective

To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets.

Methods

Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, ...

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Seizure outcomes in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis: A follow-up study

Summary

Objective

To evaluate the long-term seizure outcome and potential factors associated with seizure outcome in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis.

Methods

In the setting of a prospective, single-center, longitudinal cohort study, 109 patients were evaluated with ongoing follow-up. Patients underwent clinical evaluation every 3 months. Seizure outcomes and the potential risk factors were assessed with a median follow-up of 24 months (6–60 months).

Results

Of 109 patients (47 men; 62 women) with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 88 patients (80.7%) had reported ...

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