Blood markers of cardiac stress after generalized convulsive seizures

Summary

Objective

Generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) are associated with high demands on the cardiovascular system, thereby facilitating cardiac complications. To investigate occurrence, influencing factors, and extent of cardiac stress or injury, the alterations and time course of the latest generation of cardiac blood markers were investigated after documented GCS.

Methods

Adult patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent video–electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring along with simultaneous one‐lead electrocardiography (ECG) recordings were included. Cardiac biomarkers (cardiac troponin I [cTNI]; high‐sensitive troponin T [hsTNT]; N‐terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic ...

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Prevalence and trajectories of depressive symptoms among mothers of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy: A longitudinal 10‐year study

Summary

Objective

Parental depression significantly impacts children’s health and well‐being. This study aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, at six time points, among mothers over the first 10 years after their child was diagnosed with epilepsy; (2) identify trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms over time; and (3) identify baseline factors associated with each trajectory.

Methods

Data came from the Health‐Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES), a Canada‐wide prospective cohort study. Data on child, parent, and family characteristics were ...

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Tonic electromyographic activity following bilateral tonic–clonic seizures is associated with periictal respiratory dysfunction and postictal generalized EEG suppression

Summary

Objective

No biomarkers reliably predict risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Postictal generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression (PGES) is a possible biomarker for SUDEP risk. However, its utility in predicting SUDEP remains uncertain. We had observed that postictal tonic electromyography (PTEMG) activity follows some generalized convulsive seizures (GCS). PTEMG activity and PGES may have a common pathophysiologic basis. PGES is associated with periictal respiratory distress. There is evidence that tonic EMG occurs with brain hypoxia. Thus PTEMG activity may be ...

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Comparative efficacy of valnoctamide and sec‐butylpropylacetamide (SPD) in terminating nerve agent–induced seizures in pediatric rats

Summary

Objectives

Children and adults are likely to be among the casualties in a civilian nerve agent exposure. This study evaluated the efficacy of valnoctamide (racemic‐VCD), sec‐butylpropylacetamide (racemic‐SPD), and phenobarbital for stopping nerve agent seizures in both immature and adult rats.

Methods

Female and male postnatal day (PND) 21, 28, and 70 (adult) rats, previously implanted with electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes were exposed to seizure‐inducing doses of the nerve agents sarin or VX and EEG was recorded continuously. Five minutes after seizure onset, animals were ...

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Seizure‐induced microvascular injury is associated with impaired neurovascular coupling and blood–brain barrier dysfunction

Summary

Objective

Blood–brain barrier (BBB) impairment, redistribution of pericytes, and disturbances in cerebral blood flow may contribute to the increased seizure propensity and neurological comorbidities associated with epilepsy. However, despite the growing evidence of postictal disturbances in microcirculation, it is not known how recurrent seizures influence pericytic membrane currents and subsequent vasodilation.

Methods

Here, we investigated successive changes in capillary neurovascular coupling and BBB integrity during recurrent seizures induced by 4‐aminopyridine or low‐Mg2+ conditions. To avoid the influence of arteriolar dilation and cerebral blood ...

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Spontaneous epileptiform activity in a rat model of bilateral subcortical band heterotopia

Summary

Objective

Malformations of cortical development are common causes of intellectual disability and epilepsy, yet there is a crucial lack of relevant preclinical models associating seizures and cortical malformations. Here, we describe a novel rat model with bilateral subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) and examine whether this model develops spontaneous epileptic seizures.

Methods

To generate bilateral SBH in rats, we combined RNAi‐mediated knockdown of Dcx and in utero electroporation with a tripolar electrode configuration enabling simultaneous transfection of the two brain hemispheres. To determine whether ...

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Cannabidiol reduces seizures and associated behavioral comorbidities in a range of animal seizure and epilepsy models

Summary

Objective

Epilepsy is a progressive neurological disease characterized by recurrent seizures and behavioral comorbidities. We investigated the antiseizure effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in a battery of acute seizure models. Additionally, we defined the disease‐modifying potential of chronic oral administration of CBD on associated comorbidities in the reduced intensity status epilepticus–spontaneous recurrent seizures (RISE‐SRS) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Methods

We evaluated the acute antiseizure effect of CBD in the maximal electroshock seizure, 6‐Hz psychomotor seizure, and pentylenetetrazol acute seizure tests, as well ...

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Localization yield and seizure outcome in patients undergoing bilateral SEEG exploration

Summary

Objective

We aimed to determine the rates and predictors of resection and seizure freedom after bilateral stereo‐electroencephalography (SEEG) implantation.

Methods

We reviewed 184 patients who underwent bilateral SEEG implantation (2009‐2015). Noninvasive and invasive evaluation findings were collected. Outcomes of interest included subsequent resection and seizure freedom. Statistical analyses employed multivariable logistic regression and proportional hazard modeling. Preoperative and postoperative seizure frequency, severity, and quality of life scales were also compared.

Results

Following bilateral SEEG implantation, 106 of 184 patients (58%) underwent resection. Single seizure type ...

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