Comparison of the real‐world effectiveness of vertical versus lateral functional hemispherotomy techniques for pediatric drug‐resistant epilepsy: A post hoc analysis of the HOPS study

Abstract

Objective

This study was undertaken to determine whether the vertical parasagittal approach or the lateral peri-insular/peri-Sylvian approach to hemispheric surgery is the superior technique in achieving long-term seizure freedom.

Methods

We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of the HOPS (Hemispheric Surgery Outcome Prediction Scale) study, an international, multicenter, retrospective cohort study that identified predictors of seizure freedom through logistic regression modeling. Only patients undergoing vertical parasagittal, lateral peri-insular/peri-Sylvian, or lateral trans-Sylvian hemispherotomy were included in this post hoc analysis. Differences in seizure ...

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Epilepsy centers in China: Current status and ways forward

Summary

Objective

China has the largest population of patients with epilepsy worldwide, which imposes a heavy burden on the public and health care systems. Several epidemiological surveys on epilepsy have been performed in China. Although these surveys grossly describe the prevalence and gap in treatment of epilepsy, the status of epilepsy centers is unclear. The number of epilepsy centers has increased substantially in recent decades. Therefore, a nationwide investigation of the scale and distribution, personnel, equipment, and epilepsy care capacity of each ...

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Soticlestat, a novel cholesterol 24‐hydroxylase inhibitor, reduces seizures and premature death in Dravet syndrome mice

Abstract

Objective

Dravet syndrome is a severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) most often caused by de novo pathogenic variants in SCN1A. Individuals with Dravet syndrome rarely achieve seizure control and have significantly elevated risk for sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Heterozygous deletion of Scn1a in mice (Scn1a
+/−) recapitulates several core phenotypes, including temperature-dependent and spontaneous seizures, SUDEP, and behavioral abnormalities. Furthermore, Scn1a
+/− mice exhibit a similar clinical response to standard anticonvulsants. Cholesterol 24-hydroxlase (CH24H) is a brain-specific enzyme ...

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Atypical functional connectome hierarchy impacts cognition in temporal lobe epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

Drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with hippocampal pathology. However, widespread network alterations are increasingly recognized and suggested to perturb cognitive function in multiple domains. Here we tested (1) whether TLE shows atypical cortical hierarchical organization, differentiating sensory and higher order systems; and (2) whether atypical hierarchy predicts cognitive impairment.

Methods

We studied 72 well-characterized drug-resistant TLE patients and 41 healthy controls, statistically matched for age and sex, using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging analysis and cognitive testing. To model cortical hierarchical ...

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Accurate detection of typical absence seizures in adults and children using a two‐channel electroencephalographic wearable behind the ears

Summary

Objective

Patients with absence epilepsy sensitivity <10% of their absences. The clinical gold standard to assess absence epilepsy is a 24-h electroencephalographic (EEG) recording, which is expensive, obtrusive, and time-consuming to review. We aimed to (1) investigate the performance of an unobtrusive, two-channel behind-the-ear EEG-based wearable, the Sensor Dot (SD), to detect typical absences in adults and children; and (2) develop a sensitive patient-specific absence seizure detection algorithm to reduce the review time of the recordings.

Methods

We recruited 12 patients (median age ...

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MicroRNAs in the development of resistance to antiseizure drugs and their potential as biomarkers in pharmacoresistant epilepsy

Summary

Although many new antiseizure drugs have been developed in the past decade, approximately 30%–40% of patients remain pharmacoresistant. There are no clinical tools or guidelines for predicting therapeutic response in individual patients, leaving them no choice other than to try all antiseizure drugs available as they suffer debilitating seizures with no relief. The discovery of predictive biomarkers and early identification of pharmacoresistant patients is of the highest priority in this group. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short noncoding RNAs negatively ...

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Features of intracranial interictal epileptiform discharges associated with memory encoding

Abstract

Objective

Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) were shown to be associated with cognitive impairment in persons with epilepsy. Previous studies indicated that IED rate, location, timing, and spatial relation to the seizure onset zone could predict an IED’s impact on memory encoding and retrieval if they occurred in lateral temporal, mesial temporal, or parietal regions. In this study, we explore the influence that other IED properties (e.g., amplitude, duration, white matter classification) have on memory performance. We were specifically interested in investigating ...

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Exploring the prevalence and profile of epilepsy across Europe using a standard retrospective chart review: Challenges and opportunities

Summary

Objective

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in four European countries (Austria, Denmark, Ireland, and Romania) employing a standard methodology. The study was conducted under the auspices of ESBACE (European Study on the Burden and Care of Epilepsy).

Methods

All hospitals and general practitioners serving a region of at least 50 000 persons in each country were asked to identify patients living in the region who had a diagnosis of epilepsy or experienced a single unprovoked seizure. Medical records were accessed, ...

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Status epilepticus suspected autoimmune: Neuronal surface antibodies and main clinical features

Abstract

Objectives

Status epilepticus (SE) can be associated with neuronal surface antibodies (NS-Abs) but NS-Ab detection rate remains unknown in patients with SE of unclear etiology at symptom presentation but suspected of having an autoimmune etiology (SE suspected autoimmune). We aimed to determine the NS-Ab detection rate and the clinical features that predict the presence of NS-Abs in patients with SE suspected autoimmune.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the clinical information of 137 patients with SE suspected autoimmune who underwent testing for NS-Abs between January ...

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