Association of outdoor air and noise pollution with unprovoked seizures and new onset epilepsy: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Abstract

Research has indicated that certain environmental exposures may increase the risk of unprovoked seizures and new onset epilepsy. This study aimed to synthesize the literature that has estimated the associations between short- and long-term exposure to outdoor air and noise pollution and the risk of unprovoked seizures and new onset epilepsy. We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, conference abstracts, and the gray literature and conducted ...

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A role of dentate gyrus mechanistic target of rapamycin activation in epileptogenesis in a mouse model of posttraumatic epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in promoting epileptogenesis in animal models of acquired epilepsy, such as posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the specific anatomical regions and neuronal populations mediating mTOR’s role in epileptogenesis are not well defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mTOR activation in dentate gyrus granule cells promotes neuronal death, mossy fiber sprouting, and PTE in the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI.

Methods

An adeno-associated virus ...

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Involvement of the contralateral hippocampus in ictal‐like but not interictal epileptic activities in the kainate mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

Animal and human studies have shown that the seizure-generating region is vastly dependent on distant neuronal hubs that can decrease duration and propagation of ongoing seizures. However, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the impact of distant brain areas on specific interictal and ictal epileptic activities (e.g., isolated spikes, spike trains, seizures). Such knowledge is critically needed, because all kinds of epileptic activities are not equivalent in terms of clinical expression and impact on the progression of the disease.

Methods

We ...

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Development of an International Standard Set of Outcomes and Measurement Methods for Routine Practice for Infants, Children, and Adolescents with Epilepsy: The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement Consensus Recommendations

Abstract

At present, there is no internationally accepted set of core outcomes or measurement methods for epilepsy clinical practice. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) convened an international working group of experts in epilepsy, people with epilepsy, and their representatives to develop minimum sets of standardized outcomes and outcome measurement methods for clinical practice. Using modified Delphi consensus methods with consecutive rounds of online voting over 12 months, a core set of outcomes and corresponding measurement tool packages to capture ...

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Brief apnea with hypoventilation reduces seizure duration and shifts seizure location for several hours in a model of severe traumatic brain injury

Abstract

Objective

Seizures can be difficult to control in infants and toddlers. Seizures with periods of apnea and hypoventilation are common following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We previously observed that brief apnea with hypoventilation (A&H) in our severe TBI model acutely interrupted seizures. The current study is designed to determine the effect of A&H on subsequent seizures and whether A&H has potential therapeutic implications.

Methods

Piglets (1 week or 1 month old) received multifactorial injuries: cortical impact, mass effect, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and seizures ...

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Cellular resolution contributions to ictal population signals

Abstract

Objective

The increased amplitude of ictal activity is a common feature of epileptic seizures, but the determinants of this amplitude have not been identified. Clinically, ictal amplitudes are measured electrographically (using, e.g., electroencephalography, electrocorticography, and depth electrodes), but these methods do not enable the assessment of the activity of individual neurons. Population signal may increase from three potential sources: (1) increased synchrony (i.e., more coactive neurons); (2) altered active state, from bursts of action potentials and/or paroxysmal depolarizing shifts in membrane ...

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Incidence and predictors of posttraumatic epilepsy and cognitive impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury: A retrospective cohort study in Malaysia

Abstract

Objective

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) significantly impacts morbidity and mortality, yet local PTE data remain scarce. In addition, there is a lack of evidence on cognitive comorbidity in individuals with PTE in the literature. We sought to identify potential PTE predictors and evaluate cognitive comorbidity in patients with PTE.

Methods

A 2-year retrospective cohort study was employed, in which adults with a history of admission for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 2019 and 2020 were contacted. Three hundred one individuals agreed to participate, with ...

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FADD gene pathogenic variants causing recurrent febrile infection‐related epilepsy syndrome: Case report and literature review

Abstract

FIRES and NORSE are clinical presentations of disease processes that, to date, remain unexplained without an established etiology in many cases. Neuroinflammation is thought to have paramount importance in the genesis of these conditions. We hereby report the clinical, EEG, brain MRI, and genetic findings of a nuclear family with recurrent febrile-related encephalopathy with refractory de novo Status Epilepticus. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed a homozygous p.C105W pathogenic variant of FADD gene (FAS-associated protein with death domain, FADD), known to cause ...

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Serotonin 2C receptor in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy: From brainstem expression to pharmacological blockade in relation to ventilatory function

Abstract

Because of its involvement in breathing control and neuronal excitability, dysregulation of the serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptor (5-HT2C) might play a key role in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Seizure-induced respiratory arrest is thus prevented by a 5-HT2B/C agonist in different seizure model. However, the specific contribution of 5-HT2C in chronic epilepsy-related respiratory dysfunction remains unknown. In a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (EPI rats), in which we previously reported interictal respiratory dysfunctions and a reduction of brainstem 5-HT ...

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Reliable detection of generalized convulsive seizures using an off‐the‐shelf digital watch: A multisite phase 2 study

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to develop a machine learning algorithm using an off-the-shelf digital watch, the Samsung watch (SM-R800), and evaluate its effectiveness for the detection of generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) in persons with epilepsy.

Methods

This multisite epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) phase 2 study included 36 adult patients. Each patient wore a Samsung watch that contained accelerometer, gyroscope, and photoplethysmographic sensors. Sixty-eight time and frequency domain features were extracted from the sensor data and were used to train a ...

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