Expression and function of the metabotropic purinergic P2Y receptor family in experimental seizure models and patients with drug-refractory epilepsy

Summary

Objective

ATP is released into the extracellular space during pathologic processes including increased neuronal firing. Once released, ATP acts on P2 receptors including ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors, resulting in changes to glial function and neuronal network excitability. Evidence suggests an involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, but there has been no systematic effort to characterize the expression and function of the P2Y receptor family during seizures and in experimental and human epilepsy.

Methods

Status ...

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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of levetiracetam on cognition, mood, and balance in healthy older adults

Summary

Objective

The cognitive and mood effects of levetiracetam (LEV) in older adults are not known. This study compared the cognitive and mood effects of LEV to placebo in healthy older adults.

Methods

Cognitive, mood, and balance variables were compared between LEV and placebo using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with two 5-week treatment periods. Healthy volunteers (n = 20) aged 65–80 (mean age 72.4) received either LEV or placebo in which the LEV target dose was 1,000 mg/day. ...

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Decreased levels of active uPA and KLK8 assessed by [111In]MICA-401 binding correlate with the seizure burden in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [111In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [111In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [111In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid–induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical ...

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Decreased levels of active uPA and KLK8 assessed by [111In]MICA-401 binding correlate with the seizure burden in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [111In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [111In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [111In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid–induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical ...

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Altered metabolomic–genomic signature: A potential noninvasive biomarker of epilepsy

Summary

Objective

This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy.

Methods

We compared high versus low or nonspiking regions in nine ...

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Nocturnal seizures are associated with more severe hypoxemia and increased risk of postictal generalized EEG suppression

Summary

Patients with epilepsy have 20-fold risk of sudden death when compared to the general population. Uncontrolled seizures is the most consistent risk factor, and death often occurs at night or in relation to sleep. We examined seizure-related respiratory disturbances in sleep versus wakefulness, focusing on periictal oxygen saturation. Respiratory measures were examined in 48 recorded seizures (sleep, n = 23, wake, n = 25) from 20 adult patients with epilepsy. Seizures from sleep were associated with lower saturation, as compared to ...

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Accelerated kindling epileptogenesis in Tg4510 tau transgenic mice, but not in tau knockout mice

Summary

The biologic processes underlying epileptogenesis following a brain insult are not fully understood, but several lines of evidence suggest that hyperphosphorylation of tau may be an important factor in these processes. To provide further insight into the causal relationship between tau and epileptogenesis, this study applied amygdala kindling to rTg4510 mice that, concurrent with other pathologies, overexpress phosphorylated tau, tau knockout mice, or their respective wild-type controls. Mice were electrically stimulated twice daily, 5 days per week ...

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Accelerated kindling epileptogenesis in Tg4510 tau transgenic mice, but not in tau knockout mice

Summary

The biologic processes underlying epileptogenesis following a brain insult are not fully understood, but several lines of evidence suggest that hyperphosphorylation of tau may be an important factor in these processes. To provide further insight into the causal relationship between tau and epileptogenesis, this study applied amygdala kindling to rTg4510 mice that, concurrent with other pathologies, overexpress phosphorylated tau, tau knockout mice, or their respective wild-type controls. Mice were electrically stimulated twice daily, 5 days per week ...

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Predictors of cognitive function in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma following stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation surgery

Summary

Objective

To determine the predictors of cognitive function in patients with drug-resistant gelastic seizures (GS) related to hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) before and after stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation surgery (SRT).

Methods

We studied 88 patients with HH who underwent SRT between October 1997 and December 2014. Patients received neuropsychological tests preoperatively and postoperatively. Based on the preoperative measures, patients were categorized as “high-functioning” (full-scale intelligence quotient [FSIQ] ≥70; n = 48) and “low-functioning” group (FSIQ <70; n = 40). Univariate and ...

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Automated T2 relaxometry of the hippocampus for temporal lobe epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, is associated with hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal. These can be identified on quantitative imaging with hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry. Although hippocampal segmentation for volumetry has been automated, T2 relaxometry currently involves subjective and time-consuming manual delineation of regions of interest. In this work, we develop and validate an automated technique for hippocampal T2 relaxometry.

Methods

Fifty patients with unilateral or bilateral HS ...

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