The diagnostic utility of 3D-ESI rotating and moving dipole methodology in the pre-surgical evaluation of MRI-negative childhood epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia

Summary

Objective

This study investigates whether a combined rotating dipole (RD) and moving dipole (MD) solution enhances three-dimensional electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging (3D-ESI) localization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–negative pediatric patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).

Methods

We retrospectively selected 14 MRI-negative patients with FCD from a cohort of 60 pediatric patients previously used to evaluate the diagnostic utility of 3D-ESI in epilepsy surgery. Patients were younger than 18 years at time of surgery and had at least 1 year of outcome ...

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The diagnostic utility of 3D-ESI rotating and moving dipole methodology in the pre-surgical evaluation of MRI-negative childhood epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia

Summary

Objective

This study investigates whether a combined rotating dipole (RD) and moving dipole (MD) solution enhances three-dimensional electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging (3D-ESI) localization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–negative pediatric patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).

Methods

We retrospectively selected 14 MRI-negative patients with FCD from a cohort of 60 pediatric patients previously used to evaluate the diagnostic utility of 3D-ESI in epilepsy surgery. Patients were younger than 18 years at time of surgery and had at least 1 year of outcome ...

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Epilepsy in cerebrovascular diseases: Review of experimental and clinical data with meta-analysis of risk factors

Summary

Objective

Seizures may occur in close temporal association with a stroke or after a variable interval. Moreover, epilepsy is often encountered in patients with leukoaraiosis. Although early post-stroke seizures have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) and to epilepsy associated with leukoaraiosis (EAL). The aim of this paper is to review data concerning pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of PSE and EAL.

Methods

We performed an extensive literature search to identify experimental and clinical ...

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Epilepsy in cerebrovascular diseases: Review of experimental and clinical data with meta-analysis of risk factors

Summary

Objective

Seizures may occur in close temporal association with a stroke or after a variable interval. Moreover, epilepsy is often encountered in patients with leukoaraiosis. Although early post-stroke seizures have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) and to epilepsy associated with leukoaraiosis (EAL). The aim of this paper is to review data concerning pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of PSE and EAL.

Methods

We performed an extensive literature search to identify experimental and clinical ...

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Transient and chronic seizure-induced inflammation in human focal epilepsy

Summary

In animal models, inflammation is both a cause and consequence of seizures. Less is known about the role of inflammation in human epilepsy. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using a radiotracer sensitive to brain inflammation in a patient with frontal epilepsy ~36 h after a seizure as well as during a seizure-free period. When statistically compared to a group of 12 matched controls, both of the patient’s scans identified a frontal (supplementary motor area) region of ...

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Transient and chronic seizure-induced inflammation in human focal epilepsy

Summary

In animal models, inflammation is both a cause and consequence of seizures. Less is known about the role of inflammation in human epilepsy. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using a radiotracer sensitive to brain inflammation in a patient with frontal epilepsy ~36 h after a seizure as well as during a seizure-free period. When statistically compared to a group of 12 matched controls, both of the patient’s scans identified a frontal (supplementary motor area) region of ...

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Vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in Malaysian children with epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency in children with epilepsy. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency among Malaysian children with epilepsy.

Methods

Cross-sectional study of ambulant children with epilepsy on long-term AEDs for >1 year seen in three tertiary hospitals in Malaysia from April 2014 to April 2015. Detailed assessment of pubertal status, skin pigmentation, sunshine exposure behavior, ...

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Anticonvulsant effect of a ghrelin receptor agonist in 6Hz corneally kindled mice

Summary

Ghrelin has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects in models of chemoconvulsant-induced seizures and status epilepticus. In this study we investigated whether deletion of the ghrelin receptor could alter the kindling process in the 6 Hz corneal kindling model and whether ghrelin receptor ligands possess anticonvulsant effects in fully kindled mice. Ghrelin receptor wild-type and knockout mice were electrically stimulated at a subconvulsive current twice daily via corneal electrodes until they reached the fully kindled state. Mice lacking the ...

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The effect of early life status epilepticus on ultrasonic vocalizations in mice

Summary

Objective

Infant crying is a series of innate vocal patterns intended to elicit the attention of adult caregivers for fulfillment of specific needs such as pain, hunger, or hypostimulation. It is one of the earliest forms of observable communication. In neonatal rodents, this behavior has recently been investigated as a potential early behavioral marker of neural deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, few studies have examined the effects of seizures on vocalization behavior during the neonatal period. The purpose ...

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Resting-state functional MRI distinguishes temporal lobe epilepsy subtypes

Summary

Objective

We assessed whether presurgical resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information for distinguishing temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) from TLE without MTS (TLE-noMTS).

Methods

Thirty-four patients with TLE and 34 sex-/age-matched controls consented to a research imaging protocol. MTS status was confirmed by histologic evaluation of surgical tissue (TLE-MTS = 16; TLE-noMTS = 18). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs) in the blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) resting-state fMRI signal, a marker ...

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