Network analysis of prospective brain development in youth with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and its relationship to cognition

Abstract

Objective

Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the most common childhood idiopathic localization‐related epilepsy syndrome. BECTS presents normal routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); however, quantitative analytic techniques have captured subtle cortical and subcortical magnetic resonance anomalies. Network science, including graph theory (GT) analyses, facilitates understanding of brain covariance patterns, potentially informing in important ways how this common self‐limiting epilepsy syndrome may impact normal patterns of brain and cognitive development.

Methods

GT analyses examined the developmental covariance among cortical and subcortical regions in ...

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Cognitive deficits in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy using touchscreen‐based translational tools

Abstract

Objective

Cognitive deficits are commonly observed in people with epilepsy, but the biologic causation of these is challenging to identify. Animal models of epilepsy can be used to explore pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to cognitive problems, as well as to test novel therapeutics. We utilized a well‐validated animal model of epilepsy to explore cognitive deficits using novel translational assessment tools/automated rodent touchscreen assays.

Methods

To induce epilepsy, adult Wistar rats were subjected to kainic acid–induced status epilepticus or sham control (n = 12/group). Two months following ...

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Influence of age at seizure onset on the acquisition of neurodevelopmental skills in an SCN8A cohort

Abstract

Objective

To characterize a cohort of patients with SCN8A‐related epilepsy and to perform analyses to identify correlations involving the acquisition of neurodevelopmental skills.

Methods

We analyzed patient data (n = 91) submitted to an online registry tailored to characteristics of children with SCN8A variants. Participants provided information on the history of their child’s seizures, medications, comorbidities, and developmental skills based on the Denver II items. Spearman rank tests were utilized to test for correlations among a variety of aspects of seizures, medications, and neurodevelopmental progression.

Results

The ...

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Increased gamma and decreased fast ripple connections of epileptic tissue: A high‐frequency directed network approach

Abstract

Objective

New insights into high‐frequency electroencephalographic activity and network analysis provide potential tools to improve delineation of epileptic tissue and increase the chance of postoperative seizure freedom. Based on our observation of high‐frequency oscillations “spreading outward” from the epileptic source, we hypothesize that measures of directed connectivity in the high‐frequency range distinguish epileptic from healthy brain tissue.

Methods

We retrospectively selected refractory epilepsy patients with a malformation of cortical development or tumor World Health Organization grade I/II who underwent epilepsy surgery with intraoperative ...

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Stereoelectroencephalography electrode placement: Detection of blood vessel conflicts

Abstract

Objective

Various forms of vascular imaging are performed to identify vessels that should be avoided during stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) planning. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard for intracranial vascular imaging. DSA is an invasive investigation, and a balance is necessary to identify all clinically relevant vessels and not to visualize irrelevant vessels that may unnecessarily restrict electrode placement. We sought to estimate the size of vessels that are clinically significant for SEEG planning.

Methods

Thirty‐three consecutive patients who underwent 354 SEEG electrode ...

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Supratentorial arachnoid cysts and seizures/epilepsy: A population study in community dwellers aged ≥20 years

Abstract

Literature on the association between arachnoid cysts and seizures/epilepsy is inconsistent, and most series have been flawed due to recruitment bias. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of supratentorial arachnoid cysts (SACs) in Atahualpa residents aged ≥20 years, and to estimate whether these lesions were associated with seizures/epilepsy. A total of 1157 individuals were included. Computed tomography revealed SACs in 25 individuals (2.2%). Most had middle cranial fossa SACs (n = 19). Recurrent nonprovoked seizures were diagnosed in 28 individuals ...

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Postoperative memory prognosis in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: The contribution of postictal memory

Abstract

Objective

The prediction of verbal memory decline after temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery remains difficult at an individual level. We evaluated the prognostic value of postictal memory testing in predicting the postoperative verbal memory function.

Methods

Sixty‐three consecutive patients were included in the analysis who underwent TLE surgery at our center with preoperative interictal/postictal and postoperative memory testing. Verbal memory was evaluated using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). We used reliable change indices with 90% confidence interval (90% RCIs) to evaluate ...

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The pharmacokinetics of oral carbamazepine in rats dosed using an automated drug delivery system

Abstract

Objective

Pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiseizure drugs differ considerably between rats and humans. Rodents require larger and more frequent doses to maintain therapeutic drug levels. This study uses the antiseizure drug (ASD) carbamazepine (CBZ) to validate the application of a previously described automated drug delivery system for delivering chronic oral medication to rats.

Methods

Treatment‐naive, male Sprague‐Dawley rats were treated with oral CBZ, 75 mg/kg every 6 hours for 10 days, via the automated feeder. Blood samples were collected on day 0 (acute), day 2 (steady‐state), and ...

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The difficulty of diagnosing NCSE in clinical practice; external validation of the Salzburg criteria

Abstract

To improve the diagnostic accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG) criteria for nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), external validation of the recently proposed Salzburg criteria is paramount. We performed an external, retrospective, diagnostic accuracy study of the Salzburg criteria, using EEG recordings from patients with and without a clinical suspicion of having NCSE. Of the 191 EEG recordings, 12 (12%) was classified as an NCSE according to the reference standard. In the validation cohort, sensitivity was 67% and specificity was 89%. The positive ...

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