Stereotactic laser anterior corpus callosotomy for Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome

Abstract

Objective

Corpus callosotomy is an effective palliative treatment for drug‐resistant Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Laser interstitial thermal therapy has been increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy. Here, we assess the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive stereotactic laser anterior corpus callosotomy (SLACC) for drop attacks in LGS.

Methods

We reviewed sequential cases of patients with medically intractable LGS who underwent SLACC using a two‐cannula technique between November 2014 and July 2019. Pre‐ and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the anteroposterior ...

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Seizures in autoimmune encephalitis: Kindling the fire

Abstract

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Autoimmune epilepsy is a subset of epilepsy that occurs in the setting of autoimmunity, such as in autoimmune encephalitis (AIE). AIE is an autoimmune disorder characterized by immune‐mediated neuroinflammation resulting in a variety of neurological symptoms, including psychiatric disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, and seizures. Seizures in AIE are thought to be a result of antibodies directed against neuronal cell‐surface proteins involved in synaptic transmission. The role of ...

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The postictal state — What do we know?

Abstract

This narrative review provides a broad and comprehensive overview of the most important discoveries on the postictal state over the past decades as well as recent developments. After a description and definition of the postictal state, we discuss postictal sypmtoms, their clinical manifestations, and related findings. Moreover, pathophysiological advances are reviewed, followed by current treatment options.

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Physical activity in people with epilepsy: A systematic review

Abstract

This study aimed to systematically review studies focusing on levels of physical activity (PA) in people with epilepsy (PWE) compared with non‐epilepsy controls, and identify factors associated with PA in PWE. Intervention studies were also reviewed to consider the effects of psychological interventions on levels of PA, and the effects of PA‐based interventions on seizure activity, psychiatric comorbidity, and health‐related quality of life (HRQoL). PRISMA guidelines were followed. Searches were conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, PsycINFO, and ...

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Cenobamate (YKP3089) as adjunctive treatment for uncontrolled focal seizures in a large, phase 3, multicenter, open‐label safety study

Abstract

Objective

During the development of cenobamate, an antiseizure medication (ASM) for focal seizures, three cases of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) occurred. To mitigate the rate of DRESS, a start‐low, go‐slow approach was studied in an ongoing, open‐label, multicenter study. Also examined were long‐term safety of cenobamate and a method for managing the pharmacokinetic interaction between cenobamate, a 2C19 inhibitor, and concomitant phenytoin or phenobarbital.

Methods

Patients 18‐70 years old with uncontrolled focal seizures taking stable doses of one to three ...

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Seizure‐related apneas have an inconsistent linkage to amygdala seizure spread

Abstract

Objective

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a frequent cause of death in epilepsy. Respiratory dysfunction is implicated as a critical factor in SUDEP pathophysiology. Human studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the amygdala resulted in apnea, indicating that the amygdala has a role in respiration control. Unilateral amygdala stimulation resulted in immediate onset of respiratory dysfunction occurring only during nose breathing. In small numbers of patients, some but not all spontaneous seizures resulted in apnea occurring shortly after ...

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Seizure detection at home: Do devices on the market match the needs of people living with epilepsy and their caregivers?

Abstract

In patients with epilepsy, the potential to prevent seizure‐related injuries and to improve the unreliability of seizure self‐report have fostered the development and marketing of numerous seizure detection devices for home use. Understanding the requirements of users (patients and caregivers) is essential to improve adherence and mitigate barriers to the long‐term use of such devices. Here we reviewed the evidence on the needs and preferences of users and provided an overview of currently marketed devices for seizure detection (medically approved ...

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Electrocorticographic and neurochemical findings after local cortical valproate application in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy

Abstract

Because oral pharmacological treatment of neocortical focal epilepsy is limited due to common systemic side effects and relatively low drug concentrations reached at the epileptic foci locally, application of antiepileptic agents directly onto the neocortical focus may enhance treatment tolerability and efficacy. We describe the effects of cortically applied sodium valproate (VPA) in two patients with pharmacoresistant neocortical focal epilepsy who were selected for epilepsy surgery after a circumscribed epileptic focus had been determined by invasive presurgical evaluation using subdural ...

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High‐frequency electrical stimulation of the anterior thalamic nuclei increases vigilance in epilepsy patients during relaxed and drowsy wakefulness

Abstract

Objective

High‐frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) reduces the frequency and intensity of focal and focal to bilateral tonic‐clonic epileptic seizures. We investigated the impact of high‐frequency ANT‐DBS on vigilance in epilepsy patients during relaxed and drowsy wakefulness, to better understand the effects and the mechanisms of action of this intervention in humans.

Methods

Four patients with different structural epileptic pathologies were included in this retrospective case‐cohort study. Short‐ and long‐term electroencephalography (EEG) was used to determine states of ...

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Digital conversations about suicide among teenagers and adults with epilepsy: A big‐data, machine learning analysis

Abstract

Objective

Digital media conversations can provide important insight into the concerns and struggles of people with epilepsy (PWE) outside of formal clinical settings and help generate useful information for treatment planning. Our study aimed to explore the big data from open‐source digital conversations among PWE with regard to suicidality, specifically comparing teenagers and adults, using machine learning technology.

Methods

Advanced machine‐learning empowered methodology was used to mine and structure open‐source digital conversations of self‐identifying teenagers and adults who endorsed suffering from epilepsy and ...

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