Standardization procedure for plasma biomarker analysis in rat models of epileptogenesis: Focus on circulating microRNAs

Summary

The World Health Organization estimates that globally 2.4 million people are diagnosed with epilepsy each year. In nearly 30% of these cases, epilepsy cannot be properly controlled by antiepileptic drugs. More importantly, treatments to prevent or modify epileptogenesis do not exist. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed. In this respect, it is important to identify which patients will develop epilepsy and which individually tailored treatment is needed. However, currently, we have no tools to identify the patients ...

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Remission of encephalopathy with status epilepticus (ESES) during sleep renormalizes regulation of slow wave sleep

Summary

Objective

In previous studies, we showed an altered overnight decrease of non–rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep slow waves in children with encephalopathy related to status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Here, we test the hypothesis that these alterations renormalize after remission of ESES. Because overnight decrease of slow waves has been linked to brain recovery and cognition, we investigate whether cognitive outcome is related to overnight changes of slow waves.

Methods

We performed a retrospective analysis of longitudinal overnight electroencephalography (EEG) in ...

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Remission of encephalopathy with status epilepticus (ESES) during sleep renormalizes regulation of slow wave sleep

Summary

Objective

In previous studies, we showed an altered overnight decrease of non–rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep slow waves in children with encephalopathy related to status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Here, we test the hypothesis that these alterations renormalize after remission of ESES. Because overnight decrease of slow waves has been linked to brain recovery and cognition, we investigate whether cognitive outcome is related to overnight changes of slow waves.

Methods

We performed a retrospective analysis of longitudinal overnight electroencephalography (EEG) in ...

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Emotional well-being in children with epilepsy: Family factors as mediators and moderators

Summary

Objective

Our objective was to examine the relationships of factors associated with children’s emotional well-being 2 years after diagnosis, and to examine if these relationships are mediated or moderated by family factors.

Methods

Data came from a multicenter prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy from across Canada (Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study; HERQULES, n = 373). Emotional well-being was assessed using the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE-55). The relationships ...

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Seizures, syndromes, and etiologies in childhood epilepsy: The International League Against Epilepsy 1981, 1989, and 2017 classifications used in a population-based cohort

Summary

Objective

The study provides updated information about the distribution of seizures, epilepsies, and etiologies of epilepsy in the general child population, and compares the old and new classification systems from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE).

Methods

The study platform was the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Cases of epilepsy were identified through registry linkages and sequential parental questionnaires. Epilepsy diagnoses were validated using a standardized protocol, and seizures, epilepsies, and etiologies were classified according to the old ...

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Seizures, syndromes, and etiologies in childhood epilepsy: The International League Against Epilepsy 1981, 1989, and 2017 classifications used in a population-based cohort

Summary

Objective

The study provides updated information about the distribution of seizures, epilepsies, and etiologies of epilepsy in the general child population, and compares the old and new classification systems from the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE).

Methods

The study platform was the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Cases of epilepsy were identified through registry linkages and sequential parental questionnaires. Epilepsy diagnoses were validated using a standardized protocol, and seizures, epilepsies, and etiologies were classified according to the old ...

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Bimodal coupling of ripples and slower oscillations during sleep in patients with focal epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Differentiating pathologic and physiologic high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) is challenging. In patients with focal epilepsy, HFOs occur during the transitional periods between the up and down state of slow waves. The preferred phase angles of this form of phase-event amplitude coupling are bimodally distributed, and the ripples (80–150 Hz) that occur during the up-down transition more often occur in the seizure-onset zone (SOZ). We investigated if bimodal ripple coupling was also evident for faster sleep oscillations, and could identify ...

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Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and mortality in epilepsy: A linked primary-care cohort study

Summary

Objective

Preliminary evidence suggests that serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) use may increase postictal respiratory drive and prevent death. We sought to determine whether SRIs are associated with improved all-cause and possible seizure-specific mortality in patients with epilepsy.

Methods

Patients with epilepsy and a random 10:1 sample without epilepsy were extracted from The ClinicAl research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER) resource. The hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause and possible seizure-specific mortality, treating SRI use as a ...

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Alterations in the α2δ ligand, thrombospondin-1, in a rat model of spontaneous absence epilepsy and in patients with idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsies

Summary

Objectives

Thrombospondins, which are known to interact with the α2δ subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels to stimulate the formation of excitatory synapses, have recently been implicated in the process of epileptogenesis. No studies have been so far performed on thrombospondins in models of absence epilepsy. We examined whether expression of the gene encoding for thrombospondin-1 was altered in the brain of WAG/Rij rats, which model absence epilepsy in humans. In addition, we examined the frequency of genetic variants ...

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Alterations in the α2δ ligand, thrombospondin-1, in a rat model of spontaneous absence epilepsy and in patients with idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsies

Summary

Objectives

Thrombospondins, which are known to interact with the α2δ subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels to stimulate the formation of excitatory synapses, have recently been implicated in the process of epileptogenesis. No studies have been so far performed on thrombospondins in models of absence epilepsy. We examined whether expression of the gene encoding for thrombospondin-1 was altered in the brain of WAG/Rij rats, which model absence epilepsy in humans. In addition, we examined the frequency of genetic variants ...

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