Indications and methodology for video-electroencephalographic studies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

Summary

Although the epilepsy and neurology communities have position papers on a number of topics pertaining to epilepsy diagnosis and management, no current paper exists for the rationale and appropriate indications for epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) evaluation. General neurologists, hospital administrators, and insurers also have yet to fully understand the role this type of testing has in the diagnosis and management of individuals with paroxysmal neurologic symptoms. This review outlines the indications for long-term video-electroencephalography (VEEG) for typical ...

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The relation between cortisol and functional connectivity in people with and without stress-sensitive epilepsy

Summary

Objective

The most common reported seizure-precipitant is stress. We recently showed a biologic basis for stress sensitivity of seizures: cortisol levels in people with stress-sensitive epilepsy correlated with focal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) on electroencephalography (EEG). Here we aimed to determine whether the effect of cortisol on the epileptic brain is global or focal, and whether cortisol affects all brains or just those of stress-sensitive people. Because epilepsy is associated with changes in functional brain connectivity, we studied ...

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Antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects and baseline hyperactivity in children and adolescents with new onset epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation.

Methods

A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning ...

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Antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects and baseline hyperactivity in children and adolescents with new onset epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation.

Methods

A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning ...

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Kappa opioid receptors regulate hippocampal synaptic homeostasis and epileptogenesis

Summary

Objective

Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves as a gain control mechanism at central nervous system (CNS) synapses, including those between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3. Improper circuit control of DG-CA3 synapses is hypothesized to underlie epileptogenesis. Here, we sought to (1) identify compounds that preferentially modulate DG-CA3 synapses in primary neuronal culture and (2) determine if these compounds would delay or prevent epileptogenesis in vivo.

Methods

We previously developed and validated an in vitro assay to visualize the ...

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Magnetoencephalographic imaging of ictal high-frequency oscillations (80-200 Hz) in pharmacologically resistant focal epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Specificity of ictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in identifying epileptogenic abnormality is significant, compared to the spikes and interictal HFOs. The objectives of the study were to detect and to localize ictal HFOs by magnetoencephalography (MEG) for identifying the seizure onset zone (SOZ), evaluate the cortical excitability from preictal to ictal transition, and establish HFO concordance rates with other modalities and postsurgical resection.

Methods

Sixty-seven patients with drug-resistant epilepsy had at least 1 spontaneous seizure each during MEG acquisition, ...

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Similarities and differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between brain gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To analyze the conceptual and practical implications of a hodotopic approach in neurosurgery, and to compare the similarities and the differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between low-grade gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy.

Methods

We review the recent data about the hodotopic organization of the brain connectome, alongside the organization of epileptic networks, and analyze how these two structures interact, suggesting therapeutic prospects. Then we focus on the mechanisms of neuroplasticity involved in glioma natural course and after glioma surgery. Comparing ...

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Similarities and differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between brain gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To analyze the conceptual and practical implications of a hodotopic approach in neurosurgery, and to compare the similarities and the differences in neuroplasticity mechanisms between low-grade gliomas and nonlesional epilepsy.

Methods

We review the recent data about the hodotopic organization of the brain connectome, alongside the organization of epileptic networks, and analyze how these two structures interact, suggesting therapeutic prospects. Then we focus on the mechanisms of neuroplasticity involved in glioma natural course and after glioma surgery. Comparing ...

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The impact of hypsarrhythmia on infantile spasms treatment response: Observational cohort study from the National Infantile Spasms Consortium

Summary

Objective

The multicenter National Infantile Spasms Consortium prospective cohort was used to compare outcomes and phenotypic features of patients with infantile spasms with and without hypsarrhythmia.

Methods

Patients aged 2 months to 2 years were enrolled prospectively with new-onset infantile spasms. Treatment choice and categorization of hypsarrhythmia were determined clinically at each site. Response to therapy was defined as resolution of clinical spasms (and hypsarrhythmia if present) without relapse 3 months after initiation.

Results

Eighty-two percent of patients had hypsarrhythmia, ...

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Cannabinoid receptor 1/2 double-knockout mice develop epilepsy

Summary

The endocannabinoid system has gained attention as an important modulator of activity in the central nervous system. Initial studies focused on cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is widely expressed in the brain, but recent work also implicates cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in modulating neuronal activity. Both receptors are capable of reducing neuronal activity, generating interest in cannabinoid receptor agonists as potential anticonvulsants. CB1 (Cnr1) and CB2 (Cnr2) single-knockout mice have been generated, with the former showing heightened ...

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