Comparative effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis

Summary

Objective

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a common epilepsy syndrome that is often poorly controlled by antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. Comparative AED effectiveness studies in this condition are lacking. We report retention, efficacy, and tolerability in a cohort of patients with MTLE-HS.

Methods

Clinical data were collected from a European database of patients with epilepsy. We estimated retention, 12-month seizure freedom, and adverse drug reaction (ADR) rates for the 10 most commonly used AEDs in ...

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Gender equality in academic research on epilepsy—a study on scientific authorships

Summary

Objective

The study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in epilepsy research, analyzing the representation of female authorships from 2008 to 2016.

Methods

Gendermetrics aided in analyzing 106,282 authorships from 22,180 epilepsy-related original research articles. The key methodology was the combined analysis of the relative frequency and the odds ratio of female authorships. The Prestige Index measures the distribution of prestigious authorships between the two genders.

Results

The following were held by women: 39.6% of all authorships and ...

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Anti-ictogenic and antiepileptogenic properties of perampanel in mature and immature rats

Summary

Objective

Perampanel (PER) is a selective noncompetitive antagonist at α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, the first of its class approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial onset seizures and generalized seizures. This study explored anti-ictogenic and antiepileptogenic effects of PER in rats at different stages of development.

Methods

Using a rapid kindling model in postnatal day 14 (P14), P21, P28, and P60 rats, we studied two doses of PER: 1 and 2 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally 30 min before afterdischarge assessment. We also assessed ...

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Anti-ictogenic and antiepileptogenic properties of perampanel in mature and immature rats

Summary

Objective

Perampanel (PER) is a selective noncompetitive antagonist at α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, the first of its class approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial onset seizures and generalized seizures. This study explored anti-ictogenic and antiepileptogenic effects of PER in rats at different stages of development.

Methods

Using a rapid kindling model in postnatal day 14 (P14), P21, P28, and P60 rats, we studied two doses of PER: 1 and 2 mg/kg injected intraperitoneally 30 min before afterdischarge assessment. We also assessed ...

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On the relationship between calcified neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in an endemic village: A large-scale, computed tomography–based population study in rural Ecuador

Summary

Objective

Using a large-scale population-based study, we aimed to assess prevalence and patterns of presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC) and its relationship with epilepsy in community-dwellers aged ≥20 years living in Atahualpa (rural Ecuador).

Methods

In a three-phase epidemiological study, individuals with suspected seizures were identified during a door-to-door survey and an interview (phase I). Then, neurologists evaluated suspected cases and randomly selected negative persons to estimate epilepsy prevalence (phase II). In phase III, all participants were offered noncontrast computed tomography ...

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Brivaracetam does not modulate ionotropic channels activated by glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and glycine in hippocampal neurons

Summary

Brivaracetam (BRV) is a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), recently approved as adjunctive treatment for drug-refractory partial-onset seizures in adults. BRV binds SV2A with higher affinity than levetiracetam (LEV), and was shown to have a differential interaction with SV2A. Because LEV was reported to interact with multiple excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels and that may impact its pharmacological profile, we were interested in determining whether BRV directly modulates inhibitory and excitatory ionotropic ...

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Health-related quality of life and emotional well-being after epilepsy surgery: A prospective, controlled, long-term follow-up

Summary

Objective

To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and emotional well-being in resective epilepsy surgery and nonoperated patients at long-term follow-up.

Methods

This is a prospective cohort study where patients undergoing presurgical work-up during 1995–1998 completed the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) at baseline, and 2 and 14 years after resective surgery or presurgical evaluation (nonoperated patients). SF-36 scores were compared to a normative population. Proportions of patients reaching HRQOL changes of minimum ...

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Health-related quality of life and emotional well-being after epilepsy surgery: A prospective, controlled, long-term follow-up

Summary

Objective

To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and emotional well-being in resective epilepsy surgery and nonoperated patients at long-term follow-up.

Methods

This is a prospective cohort study where patients undergoing presurgical work-up during 1995–1998 completed the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) at baseline, and 2 and 14 years after resective surgery or presurgical evaluation (nonoperated patients). SF-36 scores were compared to a normative population. Proportions of patients reaching HRQOL changes of minimum ...

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A distinct clinicopathological variant of focal cortical dysplasia IIId characterized by loss of layer 4 in the occipital lobe in 12 children with remote hypoxic–ischemic injury

Summary

Objective

In 2011, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a consensus classification system of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) to distinguish clinicopathological subtypes, for example, “isolated” FCD type Ia–c and IIa–b, versus “associated” FCD type IIIa–d. The histopathological differentiation of FCD type I and III variants remains, however, a challenging issue in everyday practice. We present a unique histopathological pattern in patients with difficult-to-diagnose FCD, which highlights this dilemma, but also helps to refine the current ILAE classification ...

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Pharmacokinetic variability of valproate in women of childbearing age

Summary

The purpose was to investigate pharmacokinetic variability of valproic acid (VPA) in women of childbearing age by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data to elucidate the variable relationship between dose and serum concentrations with the ultimate aim of facilitating safer use of VPA. Anonymized retrospective data from the TDM database (2006–2015) at the National Center for Epilepsy in Norway were used. Trough total concentrations of VPA at assumed steady state in women aged 14–46 years were analyzed. Data ...

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