Generalized quasiperiodic epileptiform activity in sleep is associated with cognitive impairment in children with drug‐resistant focal lesional epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the impact of generalized quasiperiodic epileptiform discharges (“hurdles”) observed in non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep on cognitive function in children with intractable focal epilepsy. “Hurdles” pattern does not meet the criteria of the electrical status epilepticus in slow‐wave sleep (ESES).

Methods

In a retrospective analysis, 24 patients with “hurdles” and their 24 peers matched for demographic and epilepsy‐related variables were compared in terms of neuropsychological domains and electroencephalography (EEG)–derived quantifiers. Both “hurdles” and controls were children between 2 and 19 years ...

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Sleep‐related hypermotor epilepsy: A prediction cohort study on sleep/awake patterns of seizures

Abstract

Sleep‐related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is characterized by hyperkinetic seizures arising from sleep. Awake seizures occasionally occur and are associated with a worse prognosis, with important implications for driving and quality of life. We evaluated the clinical features and sleep/wakefulness distribution of seizures at onset and lifelong in a large cohort of clinical/confirmed SHE. Chi‐square test and a multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify predictors of awake seizures lifelong (primary endpoint). Positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+, LR‐) were ...

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A score to map the lateral nonprimary motor area: Multispectrum intrinsic brain activity versus cortical stimulation

Abstract

Objective

Multispectrum electrocorticographic components are critical for mapping the nonprimary motor area (NPMA). The objective of this study was to derive and validate a reliable scoring system for electrocorticography‐based NPMA mapping (NPMA score) to replace electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) during brain surgery.

Methods

We analyzed 14 consecutive epilepsy patients with subdural electrodes implanted in the frontal lobe at Kyoto University Hospital. The NPMA score was retrospectively derived from multivariate analysis in the derivation group (patients = 7, electrodes = 713, during 2010‐2013) and validated in the validation ...

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Antiepileptic drug monotherapy for epilepsy in the elderly: A systematic review and network meta‐analysis

Abstract

Objective

To estimate the comparative efficacy and safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the elderly with new‐onset epilepsy.

Methods

We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of monotherapy AEDs to treat epilepsy in elderly. The following outcomes were analyzed: seizure freedom and withdrawal from the study for any cause at 6 and 12 months; withdrawal from the study for any adverse event (AE) at 12 months; and occurrence of any AE at 12 months. Effect sizes were estimated by network meta‐analyses within a frequentist ...

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Long‐term chemogenetic suppression of spontaneous seizures in a mouse model for temporal lobe epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

More than one‐third of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) continue to have seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs, and many experience severe drug‐related side effects, illustrating the need for novel therapies. Selective expression of inhibitory Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) allows cell‐type‐specific reduction of neuronal excitability. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chemogenetic suppression of excitatory pyramidal and granule cell neurons of the sclerotic hippocampus in the intrahippocampal mouse model (IHKA) for temporal lobe ...

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Characteristics of 698 patients with dissociative seizures: A UK multicenter study

Abstract

Objective

We aimed to characterize the demographics of adults with dissociative (nonepileptic) seizures, placing emphasis on distribution of age at onset, male:female ratio, levels of deprivation, and dissociative seizure semiology.

Methods

We collected demographic and clinical data from 698 adults with dissociative seizures recruited to the screening phase of the CODES (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy vs Standardised Medical Care for Adults With Dissociative Non‐Epileptic Seizures) trial from 27 neurology/specialist epilepsy clinics in the UK. We described the cohort in terms of age, age at ...

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Pharmacokinetic interaction between modified Atkins diet and antiepileptic drugs in adults with drug‐resistant epilepsy

Abstract

Objective

The aim was to examine the influence of modified Atkins diet on serum concentration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).

Methods

Prospective data from 63 adult patients with either focal or generalized drug‐resistant epilepsy recruited to 12‐week dietary treatment as add‐on to AEDs are analyzed. AED serum concentrations, ketones, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were measured before and after the dietary intervention. Paired t test was used and Spearman correlation coefficient, r, was estimated.

Results

Mean age was 37 years (range 16‐65 years). Mean serum concentrations of carbamazepine, clobazam, ...

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Imaging biomarkers of posttraumatic epileptogenesis

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 2.5 million people annually within the United States alone, with over 300 000 severe injuries resulting in emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Severe TBI can result in long‐term disability. Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is one of the most debilitating consequences of TBI, with an estimated incidence that ranges from 2% to 50% based on severity of injury. Conducting studies of PTE poses many challenges, because many subjects with TBI never develop epilepsy, and it can be ...

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