Seizure‐related apneas have an inconsistent linkage to amygdala seizure spread

Abstract

Objective

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a frequent cause of death in epilepsy. Respiratory dysfunction is implicated as a critical factor in SUDEP pathophysiology. Human studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the amygdala resulted in apnea, indicating that the amygdala has a role in respiration control. Unilateral amygdala stimulation resulted in immediate onset of respiratory dysfunction occurring only during nose breathing. In small numbers of patients, some but not all spontaneous seizures resulted in apnea occurring shortly after ...

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Seizure detection at home: Do devices on the market match the needs of people living with epilepsy and their caregivers?

Abstract

In patients with epilepsy, the potential to prevent seizure‐related injuries and to improve the unreliability of seizure self‐report have fostered the development and marketing of numerous seizure detection devices for home use. Understanding the requirements of users (patients and caregivers) is essential to improve adherence and mitigate barriers to the long‐term use of such devices. Here we reviewed the evidence on the needs and preferences of users and provided an overview of currently marketed devices for seizure detection (medically approved ...

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Electrocorticographic and neurochemical findings after local cortical valproate application in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy

Abstract

Because oral pharmacological treatment of neocortical focal epilepsy is limited due to common systemic side effects and relatively low drug concentrations reached at the epileptic foci locally, application of antiepileptic agents directly onto the neocortical focus may enhance treatment tolerability and efficacy. We describe the effects of cortically applied sodium valproate (VPA) in two patients with pharmacoresistant neocortical focal epilepsy who were selected for epilepsy surgery after a circumscribed epileptic focus had been determined by invasive presurgical evaluation using subdural ...

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High‐frequency electrical stimulation of the anterior thalamic nuclei increases vigilance in epilepsy patients during relaxed and drowsy wakefulness

Abstract

Objective

High‐frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) reduces the frequency and intensity of focal and focal to bilateral tonic‐clonic epileptic seizures. We investigated the impact of high‐frequency ANT‐DBS on vigilance in epilepsy patients during relaxed and drowsy wakefulness, to better understand the effects and the mechanisms of action of this intervention in humans.

Methods

Four patients with different structural epileptic pathologies were included in this retrospective case‐cohort study. Short‐ and long‐term electroencephalography (EEG) was used to determine states of ...

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Digital conversations about suicide among teenagers and adults with epilepsy: A big‐data, machine learning analysis

Abstract

Objective

Digital media conversations can provide important insight into the concerns and struggles of people with epilepsy (PWE) outside of formal clinical settings and help generate useful information for treatment planning. Our study aimed to explore the big data from open‐source digital conversations among PWE with regard to suicidality, specifically comparing teenagers and adults, using machine learning technology.

Methods

Advanced machine‐learning empowered methodology was used to mine and structure open‐source digital conversations of self‐identifying teenagers and adults who endorsed suffering from epilepsy and ...

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Usefulness of saliva for perampanel therapeutic drug monitoring

Abstract

Objective

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) helps optimize drug management for patients with epilepsy. Salivary testing is both noninvasive and easy, and has several other advantages. Due to technical advances, salivary TDM has become feasible for several drugs, including AEDs, and its value has been investigated. Until recently, saliva TDM of perampanel (PER) had not been reported. The purpose of our study was to confirm whether saliva is a biological substitute for plasma in PER TDM.

Methods

Adult patients diagnosed ...

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Quantitative analysis of hyperkinetic seizures and correlation with seizure onset zone

Abstract

Objective

Hyperkinetic epileptic seizures (HKS) are difficult to characterize and localize according to semiologic features. We propose a multicriteria scale to help visual analysis and report results of cerebral localization.

Methods

We assessed seizures from 37 patients with HKS, explored with stereoelectroencephalography during presurgical evaluation. We used a multicriteria scale (hyperkinetic seizure scale [HSS]) with 10 semiologic features, scored independently by two neurologists. The item scores were used to group seizures using the k‐means method. Semiologic features were correlated with the seizure onset ...

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Seizure detection using heart rate variability: A prospective validation study

Abstract

Although several validated seizure detection algorithms are available for convulsive seizures, detection of nonconvulsive seizures remains challenging. In this phase 2 study, we have validated a predefined seizure detection algorithm based on heart rate variability (HRV) using patient‐specific cutoff values. The validation data set was independent from the previously published data set. Electrocardiography (ECG) was recorded using a wearable device (ePatch) in prospectively recruited patients. The diagnostic gold standard was inferred from video–EEG monitoring. Because HRV‐based seizure detection is suitable ...

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Automated video‐based detection of nocturnal motor seizures in children

Abstract

Seizure detection devices can improve epilepsy care, but wearables are not always tolerated. We previously demonstrated good performance of a real‐time video‐based algorithm for detection of nocturnal convulsive seizures in adults with learning disabilities. The algorithm calculates the relative frequency content based on the group velocity reconstruction from video‐sequence optical flow. We aim to validate the video algorithm on nocturnal motor seizures in a pediatric population. We retrospectively analyzed the algorithm performance on a database including 1661 full recorded nights ...

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Cognitive phenotypes in temporal lobe epilepsy utilizing data‐ and clinically driven approaches: Moving toward a new taxonomy

Abstract

Objective

To identify cognitive phenotypes in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and test their reproducibility in a large, multi‐site cohort of patients using both data‐driven and clinically driven approaches.

Method

Four‐hundred seven patients with TLE who underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation at one of four epilepsy centers were included. Scores on tests of verbal memory, naming, fluency, executive function, and psychomotor speed were converted into z‐scores based on 151 healthy controls (HCs). For the data‐driven method, cluster analysis (k‐means) was used to determine the ...

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