Association between hemorrhagic transformation after endovascular therapy and poststroke seizures

Summary

Objective

Endovascular therapy has recently become standard therapy for select patients with acute ischemic stroke. Infarcted brain tissue may undergo hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after endovascular therapy. We investigated the association between HT and occurrence of poststroke seizures in patients treated with endovascular therapy.

Methods

Consecutive patients treated with endovascular therapy for acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke were included. HT was assessed with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) at 24 h after stroke onset. Patients were followed for up to ...

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Loss of constitutive functional γ-aminobutyric acid type A-B receptor crosstalk in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of human epileptic temporal cortex

Summary

Objective

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult central nervous system, and profound alterations of GABA receptor functions are linked to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here we describe the functional relationships between GABA receptors type B (GABABR) and type A (GABAAR) in human temporal cortex and how TLE affects this aspect of GABAergic signaling.

Methods

Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were recorded by patch-clamp techniques from human L5 pyramidal neurons in slices from temporal cortex tissue ...

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Comparative efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in children and adolescents: A network meta-analysis

Summary

Objective

To estimate the comparative efficacy among antiepileptic drugs in the pediatric population (0-18 years).

Methods

Using the Embase and MEDLINE databases, we updated to February 2017 the search strategy of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for epilepsy. We only included randomized clinical trials conducted in children and mixed-age populations. According to the PRISMA network meta-analysis guideline, the study-level quality assessment was made with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Three investigators independently selected articles. The efficacy ...

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ADGRV1 is implicated in myoclonic epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To investigate the significance of variation in ADGRV1 (also known as GPR98, MASS1, and VLGR1), MEF2C, and other genes at the 5q14.3 chromosomal locus in myoclonic epilepsy.

Methods

We studied the epilepsy phenotypes of 4 individuals with 5q14.3 deletion and found that all had myoclonic seizures. We then screened 6 contiguous genes at 5q14.3, MEF2C, CETN3, MBLAC2, POLR3G, LYSMD3, and ADGRV1, in a 95-patient cohort with epilepsy and myoclonic seizures. Of these genes, point mutations in MEF2C cause ...

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ADGRV1 is implicated in myoclonic epilepsy

Summary

Objective

To investigate the significance of variation in ADGRV1 (also known as GPR98, MASS1, and VLGR1), MEF2C, and other genes at the 5q14.3 chromosomal locus in myoclonic epilepsy.

Methods

We studied the epilepsy phenotypes of 4 individuals with 5q14.3 deletion and found that all had myoclonic seizures. We then screened 6 contiguous genes at 5q14.3, MEF2C, CETN3, MBLAC2, POLR3G, LYSMD3, and ADGRV1, in a 95-patient cohort with epilepsy and myoclonic seizures. Of these genes, point mutations in MEF2C cause ...

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Pharmacogenetics of KCNQ channel activation in 2 potassium channelopathy mouse models of epilepsy

Summary

Objectives

Antiseizure drugs are the leading therapeutic choice for treatment of epilepsy, but their efficacy is limited by pharmacoresistance and the occurrence of unwanted side effects. Here, we examined the therapeutic efficacy of KCNQ channel activation by retigabine in preventing seizures and neurocardiac dysfunction in 2 potassium channelopathy mouse models of epilepsy with differing severity that have been associated with increased risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP): the Kcna1−/− model of severe epilepsy and the Kcnq1A340E/A340E ...

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Modeling pathogenesis and treatment response in childhood absence epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome with polygenic inheritance, with genes for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors and T-type calcium channels implicated in the disorder. Previous studies of T-type calcium channel electrophysiology have shown genetic changes and medications have multiple effects. The aim of this study was to use an established thalamocortical computer model to determine how T-type calcium channels work in concert with cortical excitability to contribute to pathogenesis and treatment response in ...

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Commonalities in epileptogenic processes from different acute brain insults: Do they translate?

Summary

The most common forms of acquired epilepsies arise following acute brain insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or central nervous system infections. Treatment is effective for only 60%-70% of patients and remains symptomatic despite decades of effort to develop epilepsy prevention therapies. Recent preclinical efforts are focused on likely primary drivers of epileptogenesis, namely inflammation, neuron loss, plasticity, and circuit reorganization. This review suggests a path to identify neuronal and molecular targets for clinical testing of ...

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Commonalities in epileptogenic processes from different acute brain insults: Do they translate?

Summary

The most common forms of acquired epilepsies arise following acute brain insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or central nervous system infections. Treatment is effective for only 60%-70% of patients and remains symptomatic despite decades of effort to develop epilepsy prevention therapies. Recent preclinical efforts are focused on likely primary drivers of epileptogenesis, namely inflammation, neuron loss, plasticity, and circuit reorganization. This review suggests a path to identify neuronal and molecular targets for clinical testing of ...

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Is inpatient ictal video-electroencephalographic monitoring mandatory in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis? A prospective study

Summary

Objective

To compare surgical outcome in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) who had or did not have preoperative video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEEG).

Methods

A prospective study was undertaken with 166 consecutive pharmacoresistant unilateral MTLE-HS patients. All patients were investigated with detailed seizure semiology, serial routine outpatient EEG, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological evaluation, and if necessary, other examinations. Postoperative follow-up ranged between 2 and 16 years. Patients were divided into: (1) patients operated on based on ...

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