Functional MRI and direct cortical stimulation: Prediction of postoperative language decline

Summary

Objective

To assess the ability of functional MRI (fMRI) to predict postoperative language decline compared to direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in epilepsy surgery patients.

Methods

In this prospective case series, 17 patients with drug‐resistant epilepsy had intracranial monitoring and resection from 2012 to 2016 with 1‐year follow‐up. All patients completed preoperative language fMRI, mapping with DCS of subdural electrodes, pre‐ and postoperative neuropsychological testing for language function, and resection. Changes in language function before and after surgery were assessed. fMRI activation and DCS ...

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fMRI prediction of naming change after adult temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: Activation matters

Summary

Objective

We aimed to predict language deficits after epilepsy surgery. In addition to evaluating surgical factors examined previously, we determined the impact of the extent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation that was resected on naming ability.

Method

Thirty‐five adults (mean age 37.5 ± 10.9 years, 13 male) with temporal lobe epilepsy completed a preoperative fMRI auditory description decision task, which reliably activates frontal and temporal language networks. Patients underwent temporal lobe resections (20 left resection). The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to determine ...

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A mouse model of seizures in anti–N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor encephalitis

Summary

Objective

Seizures develop in 80% of patients with anti–N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, and these represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Anti‐NMDAR antibodies have been linked to memory loss in encephalitis; however, their role in seizures has not been established. We determined whether anti‐NMDAR antibodies from autoimmune encephalitis patients are pathogenic for seizures.

Methods

We performed continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or purified immunoglobulin (IgG) from the CSF of patients with anti‐NMDAR encephalitis or polyclonal rabbit anti‐NMDAR IgG, in male ...

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Development of information sharing in language neocortex in childhood‐onset drug‐resistant epilepsy

Summary

Objective

We studied age‐related dynamics of information sharing among cortical language regions with electrocorticographic high‐gamma modulation during picture‐naming and story‐listening tasks.

Methods

Seventeen epilepsy patients aged 4‐19 years, undergoing extraoperative monitoring with left‐hemispheric subdural electrodes, were included. Mutual information (MI), a nondirectional measure of shared information, between 16 pairs of cortical regions of interest, was computed from trial‐averaged 70–150 Hz power modulations during language tasks. Impact of age on pairwise MI between language regions and their determinants were ascertained with regression analysis.

Results

During picture naming, ...

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Sensorimotor network hypersynchrony as an endophenotype in families with genetic generalized epilepsy: A resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Summary

Recent evidence suggests that three specific brain networks show state‐dependent levels of synchronization before, during, and after episodes of generalized spike‐wave discharges (GSW) in patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Here, we investigate whether synchronization in these networks differs between patients with GGE (n = 13), their unaffected first‐degree relatives (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 18). All subjects underwent two 10‐minute simultaneous electroencephalographic–functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings without GSW. Whole‐brain data were divided into 90 regions, and blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) phase ...

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Four‐dimensional functional cortical maps of visual and auditory language: Intracranial recording

Summary

Objective

The strength of presurgical language mapping using electrocorticography (ECoG) is its outstanding signal fidelity and temporal resolution, but the weakness includes limited spatial sampling at an individual patient level. By averaging naming‐related high‐gamma activity at nonepileptic regions across a large number of patients, we provided the functional cortical atlases animating the neural dynamics supporting visual‐object and auditory‐description naming at the whole brain level.

Methods

We studied 79 patients who underwent extraoperative ECoG recording as epilepsy presurgical evaluation, and generated time‐frequency plots and ...

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Spectrum of neurodevelopmental disease associated with the GNAO1 guanosine triphosphate–binding region

Summary

Objective

To characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with GNAO1 variants and establish genotype‐protein structure‐phenotype relationships.

Methods

We evaluated the phenotypes of 14 patients with GNAO1 variants, analyzed their variants for potential pathogenicity, and mapped them, along with those in the literature, on a three‐dimensional structural protein model.

Results

The 14 patients in our cohort, including one sibling pair, had 13 distinct, heterozygous GNAO1 variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. We attributed the same variant in two siblings to parental mosaicism. Patients initially presented with ...

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Taurine potentiates the anticonvulsive effect of the GABAA agonist muscimol and pentobarbital in the immature mouse hippocampus

Summary

Objective

The high incidence of epileptic seizures in neonates and their frequent refractoriness to pharmacologic therapies require identification of new therapeutical options. Therefore, we investigated whether the modulatory effect of taurine on γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors can enhance the anticonvulsive potential of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and of the barbiturate pentobarbital.

Methods

We performed field potential recordings in in toto hippocampus preparations of immature (postnatal days 4‐7) C57Bl/6 mouse pups. Spontaneous epileptiform activity was induced by the continuous presence of the potassium ...

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Medication treatment for attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the risk of acute seizures in individuals with epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 10%‐30% of individuals with epilepsy, yet concerns remain regarding the safety of ADHD medication in this group. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of acute seizures associated with ADHD medication in individuals with epilepsy.

Methods

A total of 21 557 individuals with a seizure history born between 1987 and 2003 were identified from Swedish population registers. Within this study population, we also identified 6773 youth (<19 years of age) who meet criteria for epilepsy, and 1605 ...

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