Language, intelligence, and educational outcomes of adolescents with antenatal exposure to antiseizure medications: prospective data from the Kerala Registry of epilepsy and pregnancy.

Globally, approximately 12 million women with epilepsy (WWE) are in the reproductive age group of 15 to 49 years [1,2]. Most of WWE also need to continue antiseizure medications (ASMs) during the pregnancy period. Infants exposed in utero to ASM are at increased risk of major congenital malformations and neurodevelopmental dysfunctions. [3–7] Prospective studies in infants of WWE with prenatal exposure to ASM show impaired motor and mental development at various stages of development from infancy [8] to preschool age [9].