Long-term seizure outcome and antiseizure medication use in autoimmune encephalitis

Epileptic seizures are a common symptom in the acute stage of autoimmune encephalitis (AE), conceptually these are regarded as acute-symptomatic seizures [1]. In a few cases only, beyond the acute phase of AE, autoimmune-associated epilepsy (AAE) with recurrent unprovoked seizures develops. AAE may occur more frequently in patients with antibodies targeting glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) [2,3], with onconeural protein antibodies (e.g., Hu, Ma2, collapsing response mediator protein 5/CV2) [4], and with Rasmussen encephalitis [5].