Neurology specialists’ visual interpretation of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: contemplating their etiology and existing challenges

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are manifestations of a complex disorder described by episodic changes in patient arousal, perception, movement and behavior [1,2]. PNES represent a vast and heterogeneous group of paroxysmal symptoms and events that look similar to epileptic seizures but cannot be explained by abnormal epileptiform activity. The distinction between epileptic seizures and PNES has become one of the points in recent discussions surrounding the use of the phrase “psychogenic nonepileptic seizures” itself [2–6].