Effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation of the anterior piriform cortex on kainate-induced seizures in rats

Publication date: July 2017Source:Epilepsy & Behavior, Volume 72
Author(s): Arezou Bayat, Mark D. Skopin, Sweta Joshi, Mithilesh Siddu, Loulwah Mukharesh, Sahar Jahan, Komei Tsuchiya, Phillip Connell, Naji Younes, Mohamad Z. Koubeissi
ObjectiveRecent evidence in animals and humans suggests that low-frequency stimulation (LFS) has significant antiepileptic properties. The anterior piriform cortex (APC) is a highly susceptible seizure-trigger zone and may be critical for the initiation and propagation of seizures originating from cortical and limbic foci.We used the kainic acid (KA) seizure model in rats to assess the therapeutic effect of LFS of the APC on seizures.MethodsAdult male Sprague–Dawley rats were implanted with electrodes in the left APC and recording electrodes bilaterally in the hippocampal CA3 regions. Rats were monitored continuously with video-EEG after the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures that followed induction of status epilepticus by intraperitoneal KA. After two weeks of baseline recordings to determine seizure frequency, LFS of the APC was applied 60-min On 15-min Off, for two weeks with 1Hz biphasic square waves, 0.2ms pulse width, at 200μA. Another 2-week period of video-EEG monitoring was done after the cessation of LFS to study the carry-over effect. Changes in seizure frequency, severity, and duration between baseline, during LFS, and post-LFS were analyzed using the Poisson regression model.ResultsOverall seizure frequency decreased during the post-LFS period to 5% of that at baseline (p=0.003). Severe seizures (stages 4 and 5 on the Racine scale) decreased to 0% of the baseline during the post-LFS period.ConclusionsTwo weeks of LFS of the APC reduced spontaneous seizure frequency and severity in the KA model with the effect outlasting the stimulation. Our findings suggest that the APC can be an important therapeutic target for stimulation in epilepsy.