Epilepsy in cerebrovascular diseases: Review of experimental and clinical data with meta-analysis of risk factors

Summary

Objective

Seizures may occur in close temporal association with a stroke or after a variable interval. Moreover, epilepsy is often encountered in patients with leukoaraiosis. Although early post-stroke seizures have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) and to epilepsy associated with leukoaraiosis (EAL). The aim of this paper is to review data concerning pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of PSE and EAL.

Methods

We performed an extensive literature search to identify experimental and clinical ...

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Transient and chronic seizure-induced inflammation in human focal epilepsy

Summary

In animal models, inflammation is both a cause and consequence of seizures. Less is known about the role of inflammation in human epilepsy. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using a radiotracer sensitive to brain inflammation in a patient with frontal epilepsy ~36 h after a seizure as well as during a seizure-free period. When statistically compared to a group of 12 matched controls, both of the patient’s scans identified a frontal (supplementary motor area) region of ...

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Transient and chronic seizure-induced inflammation in human focal epilepsy

Summary

In animal models, inflammation is both a cause and consequence of seizures. Less is known about the role of inflammation in human epilepsy. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using a radiotracer sensitive to brain inflammation in a patient with frontal epilepsy ~36 h after a seizure as well as during a seizure-free period. When statistically compared to a group of 12 matched controls, both of the patient’s scans identified a frontal (supplementary motor area) region of ...

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Vitamin D deficiency and its risk factors in Malaysian children with epilepsy

Summary

Objective

Long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency in children with epilepsy. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency among Malaysian children with epilepsy.

Methods

Cross-sectional study of ambulant children with epilepsy on long-term AEDs for >1 year seen in three tertiary hospitals in Malaysia from April 2014 to April 2015. Detailed assessment of pubertal status, skin pigmentation, sunshine exposure behavior, ...

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Anticonvulsant effect of a ghrelin receptor agonist in 6Hz corneally kindled mice

Summary

Ghrelin has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects in models of chemoconvulsant-induced seizures and status epilepticus. In this study we investigated whether deletion of the ghrelin receptor could alter the kindling process in the 6 Hz corneal kindling model and whether ghrelin receptor ligands possess anticonvulsant effects in fully kindled mice. Ghrelin receptor wild-type and knockout mice were electrically stimulated at a subconvulsive current twice daily via corneal electrodes until they reached the fully kindled state. Mice lacking the ...

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The effect of early life status epilepticus on ultrasonic vocalizations in mice

Summary

Objective

Infant crying is a series of innate vocal patterns intended to elicit the attention of adult caregivers for fulfillment of specific needs such as pain, hunger, or hypostimulation. It is one of the earliest forms of observable communication. In neonatal rodents, this behavior has recently been investigated as a potential early behavioral marker of neural deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, few studies have examined the effects of seizures on vocalization behavior during the neonatal period. The purpose ...

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Resting-state functional MRI distinguishes temporal lobe epilepsy subtypes

Summary

Objective

We assessed whether presurgical resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information for distinguishing temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) from TLE without MTS (TLE-noMTS).

Methods

Thirty-four patients with TLE and 34 sex-/age-matched controls consented to a research imaging protocol. MTS status was confirmed by histologic evaluation of surgical tissue (TLE-MTS = 16; TLE-noMTS = 18). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs) in the blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) resting-state fMRI signal, a marker ...

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The SCN8A encephalopathy mutation p.Ile1327Val displays elevated sensitivity to the anticonvulsant phenytoin

Summary

Objective

SCN8A encephalopathy (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy; EIEE13) is caused by gain-of-function mutations resulting in hyperactivity of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.6. The channel is concentrated at the axon initial segment (AIS) and is involved in establishing neuronal excitability. Clinical features of SCN8A encephalopathy include seizure onset between 0 and 18 months of age, intellectual disability, and developmental delay. Seizures are often refractory to treatment with standard antiepileptic drugs, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) has been ...

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WONOEP appraisal: Molecular and cellular biomarkers for epilepsy

Summary

Peripheral biomarkers have myriad potential uses for treatment, prediction, prognostication, and pharmacovigilance in epilepsy. To date, no single peripheral biomarker has demonstrated proven effectiveness, although multiple candidates are in development. In this review, we discuss the major areas of focus including inflammation, blood–brain barrier dysfunction, redox alterations, metabolism, hormones and growth factors.

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Revised version of quality guidelines for presurgical epilepsy evaluation and surgical epilepsy therapy issued by the Austrian, German, and Swiss working group on presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy treatment

Summary

The definition of minimal standards remains pivotal as a basis for a high standard of care and as a basis for staff allocation or reimbursement. Only limited publications are available regarding the required staffing or methodologic expertise in epilepsy centers. The executive board of the working group (WG) on presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy treatment published the first guidelines in 2000 for Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. In 2014, revised guidelines were published and the WG decided ...

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