Response to Zhang et al.: Levetiracetam vs. brivaracetam for adults with refractory focal seizures: A meta-analysis and indirect comparison

We read with interest the meta-analysis and indirect comparison of levetiracetam and brivaracetam recently presented by Zhang et al. (Seizure 2016;39:28–33) [1]. We would like to raise two points in response. Firstly, some methodological elements common to indirect comparisons have not been addressed in the published work. Secondly, the use of network meta-analyses of clinical trials to produce valid evidence of the comparative efficacy and safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has previously been called into question, which was not discussed ...

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The burden of headache in people with epilepsy

Epilepsy is defined as a brain disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition [1]. Approximately 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, making it one of the most common neurological diseases globally [2]. One of the most useful methods to measure overall burden of a disease is the Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); these are higher for epilepsy than for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis ...

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Comparison of the serum cytokine levels before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in patients with infantile spasm

Infantile spasm, a childhood epilepsy with rather poor prognosis, is characterized by myoclonic seizures, a hypsarrythmic EEG pattern and developmental retardation. It was first described by William West in his own son in 1841. Various hypotheses have been proposed concerning the pathophysiology of infantile spasm. These include brain stem dysfunction due to pathology in serotonergic neurons, interaction between the brain stem and a focal or diffuse cortical abnormality, interaction between cortical-subcortical abnormalities and immunological dysfunction [1–4].

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