FROM NOCTURNAL FRONTAL LOBE EPILEPSY TO SLEEP-RELATED HYPERMOTOR SEIZURES: A 35-YEAR DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGE

Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a focal epilepsy with seizures arising mainly during sleep and characterized by complex, often bizarre, motor behavior or sustained dystonic posturing. First described in 1981, it was initially considered a motor disorder of sleep and was named Nocturnal Paroxysmal Dystonia (NPD). The unusual seizure semiology, onset during sleep, and often uninformative scalp EEG and brain MRI make it difficult to distinguish NPD attacks from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias.

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Nocebo effect in refractory partial epilepsy during pre-surgical monitoring: Systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials

Nocebo refers to adverse events (AEs) connected to negative expectations that medical treatment will probably harm instead of heal and can be assessed in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) [1,2]. The nocebo effect is related to lower adherence in therapy, high rates of dropouts, as well as significant difficulty in assessing the efficacy and the safety profile of a drug in clinical trials [3,4]. There is evidence that nocebo is related to negative pretrial suggestions and previous negative experiences during ...

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